Nudity and Textuality in Postmodern Performance

Danish ballet dancer Vivi Flindt (b. 1943) in “Salome,” choreographed by Flemming Flindt in the Copenhagen Circus Building, 1978. Photo: Per Pejstrup, from Hanne Brandt, “Når cypressen blomstrer–et portraet af Vivi Flindt,” Copenhagen: Lindhardt & Ringhof, 2001, p. 67.

“Nudity and Textuality in Postmodern Performance,” in Performing Arts Journal, Sep., 1996, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 76-91. 

Voice and Obsession: A Rhetoric of Anonymity in The Revenger’s Tragedy (1607)

A moment from the dance Marche Fúnebre (Moscow, 1921), choreographed by Kasjan Goleizovsky, music by Nikolai Medtner, photograph by Daniil Demutsky. Depicted: K. Kuznetsova, Tat’iana Miroslavskaia, and L. Gai. From: Nicoletta Misler, The Russian Art of Movement 1920-1930, page 211. My essay on “The Revenger’s Tragedy” makes no reference to this image, which merely evokes the sinister mood of the play and my essay.

Voice and Obsession (PDF)

Elodie Guézou: Lighthouse Video Performance (2021)

PDF version of the pantomime book. I am very grateful to Ariane Martinez for helping to create this post.

Figure 195: Elodie Guézou interacting with her video image in “Cadvre exquis,” unidentified French city, November 2020; photo for Ouest-France by Nikolas Nidimages.

An exceptionally imaginative example of postmodern pantomime is a 2021 video performance piece by French contortionist Elodie Guézou (b. 1987) (ARTE Concert 2021). The six-minute piece, which does not carry any discernible title, is an interdisciplinary project insofar as the power of the performance depends on the way a video camera views the pantomime. The video does not document a pantomime performance; rather, the camera is an active element of the performance. A collaborative authorship is therefore responsible for the creation of this piece, with the video director, Matthias Castegnaro (b. 1988) providing an unspecified measure of creative input on what I will call the “lighthouse production.” Well before this production, Guézou had demonstrated a multidisciplinary approach to performance, having studied at the International School of Dramatic Corporeal Mime in Paris, and then acting and dance at different Parisian schools as well as circus performance at the circus school in Lomme. She began her professional career as a singer before migrating to acting in theatrical and video productions, modeling, contortionist performances, and modern dance pieces (Guézou 2021). In a 2019 interview with theater historian Ariane Martinez, Guézou explained how contortionist-circus performance gave her a sense of authorial control over her performances: “Since I have been a circus performer, I legitimately feel myself to be an author. The circus artist choreographs and forges her movement from her unique bodily abilities, from her way of (de) shaping her body. […] But when I was only an actress, I didn’t feel like an author, I felt like a technician of an artistic language” (Martinez 2021: 143). Her contortionist-dance performances attracted the attention of videographers, who, however, were unable to build her performances beyond what they were without video. In 2015, she first attempted to subjectivize her contortionism by attaching a small video camera to her forehead and contorting herself before a studio mirror, so that the video viewer saw her contortions as she herself saw them, a concept that she developed more fully in a 2020 video (Guézou 2015; Guézou 2020). While these “exercises” created an almost erotic intimacy with the body of the performer, they magnified the impression that the performer can never see her own performance as well as some “other” person who sees her in a way that is independent of what she controls through her body. 

          The performance space of the lighthouse project is a lighthouse near Caen, Guézou’s birthplace. The piece is one of many commissioned by the French-German television channel Arte to provide performance opportunities for acrobats and circus artists who could not perform in theaters during the pandemic. After an opening external shot of the lighthouse dome against cloudy skies, the video cuts to the interior of the dome with Guézou standing, her back to the viewer, and gazing through a window at the land and sea below. Wearing a sleeveless gray tee shirt and black tights, she arches completely backward, face upside down to the camera, placing her hands on the hardwood floor of what is apparently a small, elegant apartment at the top of the lighthouse. This movement initiates a series of contortionist-dance movements. She lifts her legs into the air, scratches her left calf with her right foot, walks belly up and backward on her hands and bare feet, uses a pole in the room to push herself upside down as she turns herself. still upside down, to stretch her body against a lattice of frosted little windows [Figure 196]. 

Figure 196: Elodie Guézou stretching herself against the lattice of little frosted windows. 2021 Video directed by Matthias Castegnaro.

She slithers down and swerves into an adjoining small room, a kind of kitchenette, where, standing on her left foot, with her right foot raised and curved, she opens and sips from a bottle of fruit juice. She then swivels into another adjoining small room with a bed, where, with her toes, she grabs a cell phone and slides onto her belly on the bed, where, with her toe, she scrolls messages on the cell phone [Figure 197]. 

Figure 197: Guézou scrolling her cell phone using her toe.

Finding nothing of interest on the phone, she returns to the room in which she began the performance and performs a gyrating contortionist dance arched back, belly up, on her hands and feet. She twirls around the floor, twists around the pole, and hoists herself into a contorted headstand before coiling around the pole [Figures 198, 199, and 200]. 

Figure 198: High angle, wide lens view of Guézou dancing and contorting in the room where the performance began.
Figure 199: Low angle, wide lens view of Guézou coiled around the pole.
Figure 200: High angle, wide lens view of Guézou coiling around the pole.

With this dance, music enters the soundtrack, a melancholy piano-cello duet, although the video does not identify the composer; the sound engineer is François-Xavier Couillard. Following the two-minute dance, she rises up, moves to a window, opens it, and jumps out of it. The camera, now outside the lighthouse, views her as she floats suspended in the air by a cable attached to the dome apartment. The music is gone, and the sound consists of bird cries and wind. Guézou pushes herself off the wall of the tower, swings back and forth several times, and performs somersaults in the air. The performance concludes with Guézou bouncing back and forth off the tower wall. As with the interior scenes, the camera views her from different angles and lens settings, although the interior scenes rely more heavily on wide angle lens shots [Figures 201, 202, and 203]. 

Figure 201: With a wide-angle lens, the camera views Guézou swinging as if seen from the wall of the lighthouse.
Figure 202: Telephoto lens shot of Guézou soaring.
Figure 203: Low angle, wide lens view of Guézou bouncing off the tower wall.

Throughout the piece, the camera (and editing, by Nicolas Millet) construct a freedom to view her that is very difficult and perhaps even impossible for a human to obtain, except through mediation, such as shots of her dancing taken outside and through the window of the dome apartment. 

          In her brief commentary on the piece at the end of the video, Guézou says that when she first saw the lighthouse, it awakened in her the desire to pursue an unusual movement toward freedom. The piece does evoke a vaguely fairytale, princess-trapped-in-the-tower atmosphere. Guézou moves about the sterile apartment alone and restlessly, as if pushing herself to find some durable pleasure in her body, in a movement or pose that will release a dormant, liberating energy. She explores her tactile attachment to various surfaces: wood, steel, glass, plastic, and cloth, although she cannot sustain any of these attachments. Communication with the outside world, as represented by her momentary, bored scrolling of her cell phone, is incapable of releasing this energy. The polished, elevated domestic environment compels her to contort her body and pressure it to make the leap into a vast, freer space. Nevertheless, the cable tethers her to the apartment. The final, exterior images of the piece exalt the idea of freedom as a soaring suspension above the world and the rest of humanity. But this idea of freedom stems from a condition of isolation and loneliness that neither domestic comfort nor digital technologies can transcend. Within this isolated condition, movement toward freedom can only emerge through the heightened awareness of one’s body offered by contorting it, by pantomiming, by dancing, by assuming that only a camera can see one’s body with any accuracy. If the world both within and without the lighthouse cannot release one from a fundamental isolation and loneliness, then movement toward freedom depends on a pleasure or happiness in one’s own body rather than pleasure in another’s. In the end, Guezou remains alone, and, in the final shot, even her body is eclipsed by the tower wall itself. 

This performance reveals the potential of postmodern narrative aesthetics to move pantomime in a rewarding new direction. Guézou constructs a complex narrative in a highly compressed time span, six minutes. She uses contortionist action to construct pantomime. These actions signify restlessness, body awareness, and the necessity of finding an internal, body-centered idea of greater freedom. They construct a narrative depicting the desire of a solitary person to achieve freedom, the release of a liberating energy locked within her body, which is in turn locked within an isolating domestic environment. But the performance of this narrative depends on an interdisciplinary or “intermedial” aesthetic, the blending of contortionism with dance and circus acrobatics, the sophisticated use of video technology, and the alternating use of natural sounds and music. Perhaps, though, the most salient dimension to the performance is the choice of the performance site: the lighthouse. It took considerable imagination to see the lighthouse as a place for pantomimic performance. But you do not see new spaces for pantomime unless you feel within yourself the desire to free pantomime from the spaces in which the world has locked it. 


Pantomime: The History and Metamorphosis of a Theatrical Ideology: Table of Contents

Pantomime: The History and Metamorphosis of a Theatrical Ideology PDF (152MB)

The PDF version of the book has been revised as of January 3, 2023 to add many illustrations, along with the correction of typographical mistakes. The section on the Riga Pantomime has been expanded, thanks to much new information supplied by Valdis Majevskis. A section on the 2021 video pantomime performance by Elodie Guezou has also been added, thanks to assistance from Professor Ariane Martinez. The file is now much larger (152MB). Be patient with the download!

Pantomime: The History and Metamorphosis of a Theatrical Ideology: References

Pantomime: The History and Metamorphosis of a Theatrical Ideology: Table of Contents

PDF version of the entire book.


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_____, 2012, “Against those who have abandoned the church and deserted it for hippodromes and theatres,” translated by Mark Vermes, web page on the website

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Collège au théâtre, 2010,La vieille et la bête, Fiche pédagogique 3, program notes and commentary on the pantomime performed by Ilka Schönbein, sponsored by the Association Bourguignonne Culturelle, pdf online

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Cowart, Georgia, 2008, The Triumph of Pleasure: Louis XIV and the Politics of Spectacle, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Cuvelier, Flore, 1805, Le gnome, ou Arlequin tigre et bienfaisant, pantomime magico bouffonne, en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

Cuvelier, Jean, 1798, L’anniversaire, ou La fête de la souveraineté: scène lyrique et mélodramatique, mêlée de pantomime, combats et danses, et dédiée au people, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1798, La Fille hussard, ou Le sergent suédois, pantomime en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

_____,1798, L’héroïne suisse, ou Amour et courage: pantomime militaire, en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1799, Le Damoisel et la Bergerette, ou la Femme vindicative. Pantomime en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1799, Les Tentations, ou tous les diables, pantomime allégorique en trois actes, Paris: Barba. 

_____, 1800, Les hommes de la nature et les hommes policés, pantomime en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1808, La Lanterne de Diogène, pantomime équestre, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1810, La main de fer, ou l’épouse criminelle, pantomime en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1812, La femme magnanime, ou la siege de la Rochelle,pantomime en trois actes, Paris: Barba. 

_____, 1812, Le renégat ou La belle géorgienne, pantomime chevaleresque de Cuvelier de Trie, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1814, Saint-Hubert, ou Le cerf miraculeux, pantomime en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1817, L’enfant du malheur, ou Les amants muets, pantomime féerie, en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1817, Macbeth ou Les sorcières de la forêt, pantomime en quatre actes, Paris: Fages.

_____, 1818, Le coffre de fer, ou la grotte des Apennins, pantomine en 3 actes,Paris: Fages.

_____, 1820, La mort de Kléber, ou, Les Français en Égypte: mimodrame historique et militaire en deux actes, Paris: Fages.

Cyprian, 1868, The Writings of Cyprian Bishop of Carthage, Vol. 1, translated by Robert Ernest Wallis, Edinburgh: Clark.

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_____, 2003, “L’interview imaginaire ou les ‘dits’ d’Étienne Decroux recueillis par Thomas Leabhart, Claire Heggen et Yves Marc de 1968 à1987 et mis en forme par Patrick Pezin,” in Patrick Pezin (ed.), Étienne Decroux, mime corporel, Saint-Jean-de-Védas: L’Entretemps, 55-209.

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_____, 1994, Les danses pacifique en Grèce antique,Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence.

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_____, 1875, Œuvres completes de Diderot, Vol. 8, Paris: Garnier.

_____, 1916, Diderot’s Early Philosophical Works, translated by Margaret Jourdain, Chicago: Open Court.

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_____, 1927, Roman History, translated by Earnest Cary, Vol. 9, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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Divertimenty Company, 2014, Le Peintre amoureux de son modèle, video performance on the Divertimenty YouTube channel.

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Domingo, Darryl, 2009, “’The Natural Propensity of Imitation’: or, Pantomimic Poetics and the Rhetoric of Augustan Wit,” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 9, 2, 51-95.

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Downes, Stephen, 2000, “Eros in the Metropolis: Bartok’s The Miraculous Mandarin,”Journal of the Royal Musical Association 125, 1, 41—61

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_____, 1990, “Die römische Villa,” Fridolin Reutti (ed.), Die römische Villa, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchhandlung, 116-149. 

Driant, Pénélope, 2012, “Maurice Farina (1883-1943), Mime, archiviste et collectionneur,” Revue de la BNF 1, 40, 6-15, online

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Duka, Sanita, 2015, “Butō Baltijā Butō un neverbālā teātra formas Baltijas kultūras kontekstā,” in Simona Orinska (ed.), The Impossibility of Capturing Butoh, Riga: Mansards, 163-179.

Dumézil, Georges, 1966, Archaic Roman Religion, translated by Philip Krapp, 2 vols., Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Dumont, Mathilde, 2016, Video clips of performances by Pinok and Matho posted on the Mathilde Dumont YouTube channel.

Dunbabin, Katherine, 1991, “Triclinium and Stibadium,” William J. Slater (ed.), Dining in a Classical Context, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 121-148.

_____, 1999, Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

_____, 2010, “The pantomime Theonoe on a mosaic from Zeugma,” Journal of Roman Archeology 23, 413-426.

_____, 2016, Theater and Spectacle in the Art of the Roman Empire, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

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Ebert, Dietmar, 2007, “Kultur an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität im Spannungsfeld von Vielfalt, Lebendigkeit und politischer Kontrolle. Von der Eröffnung des “Rosenkellers” 1966 bis zur Aufführung des Revolutionsspektakels Sommernachtstraum 1989,” in Uwe Hossfeld, Tobias Kaiser, Heinz Mestrup (eds.), Hochschule im Sozialismus: Studien zur Geschichte der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (1945-1990), Cologne: Böhlau, Vol. 1, 1086-1124.

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Edelstein, Ludwig and Emma Edelstein, 1945, Asclepius. A Collection and Interpretation of the Testimonies, 2 vols., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 

Egrynas, 2014, videos depicting scenes from pantomimes by Kęstutis Adomaitis posted on the Egrynas YouTube channel. 

Einasto, Heili, 1981, Personal diary entries about studying under Adolf Traks transmitted by email to Karl Toepfer 10 October 2017.

_____, 2002, Unpublished conference paper about studying pantomime with Adolf Traks presented at IFTR/FIRT Amsterdam conference Choreography and Corporeality working group.

_____, 2017, Email communications with Adolf Traks.

_____, 2018, Rahel Olbrei: Eesti tantsuteatri rajaja, Tallinn: Eesti Teatriliit.

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_____, 1957b [1942], The Film Sense, translated by Jay Leyda and Stephen Garry, New York: Meridian.

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Eksta, Viktorija, 2016, “Viktorija Eksta,” interview with Viktorija Eksta by Arnis Balčus and images from her photo project God Nature Workfkmagazine (13 May), online

_____, 2018 [2010], “Interview with the director of Riga Pantomime troupe Roberts Ligers (intervija ar Robertu Ligeru),” posted online

Elia, Olga, 1965, “Rappresentazione di un pantomimo nella pittura pompeiana,” Gli archeologi italiani in onore di Amedeo Maiuri, Cava dei Tirreni: Di Mauro. 

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_____, 1786 [1785], Ideen zu einer Mimik, 2 vols., Berlin: Mylius.

Enters, Angna, 1937, First Person Plural, New York: Stackpole. 

_____, 1939, Love Possessed Juana, New York: Twice a Year Press.

_____, 1944, Silly Girl, a Portrait of Personal Remembrance, Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

_____, 1955, Among the Daughters, New York: Coward McCann.

_____, 1958, Artist’s Life, New York: Coward McCann. 

_____, 1965, On Mime, Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.

Epner, Luule, 2015, “Aated ja stiiliotsingud: ekspressionism 1920 aastate eesti teatris,” Philologia Estonica Tallinnensis 17, 286-313.

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Erinnerungen an Henriette Hendel-Schütz, 1870, Darmstadt: Ziernen.

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ETMM T438, 1963-1989, folder in the Estonian Theater and Music Museum on Pantomime artists in Estonia.

Evagrius Scolasticus, 2000, The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius Scholasticus, translated by Michael Whitby, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. 

Eyman, Scott, 2000, Ernst Lubitsch: Laughter in Paradise, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Fabbricatore, Arianna, 2011, “Sémiramis, ballet pantomime tragique: l’écriture chorégraphique de la tragédie et la construction théorique d’un nouveau genre théâtral … à paraître dans L’opéra ou le Triomphe des Reines,” Tragédie et Opéra Séminaires 2010-2011(online HAL: halshs-00687940v2). 

_____, 2014, “Le ballet pantomime et l’Antiquite: quelques notes de réflexion,” in Faverzani Camillo (ed.), Euterpe et l’Empereur, L’Antiquite et l’Opera, Seminaires 2011-2012, Travaux et Documents, Saint-Denis, UniversitéParis 8-Paris, Institut National d’Histoire de l’Art, n. 58, 21-40 (online HAL: halshs-01071927).

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Faul, Michel, 2013, Les tribulations de Nicolas-Médard Audinot, fondateur du théâtre de l’Ambigu-Comique, Lyon: Symétrie.

Fehling, Wiert, 2007, Irail Gadescov: danseur célèbre 1894-1970: de opmerkelijke carrière van danspionier Richard Vogelsang, Delft: Eburon.

Feisel, Florian, 2008-2011, Video excerpts of Antje Töpfer pantomime performances posted on the Florian Feisel YouTube channel.

Ferrario, Fusi, 1813, Lettere Critiche Intorno al Prometeo, Milan: Ferrario.

Ferrill, Arthur, “Otho, Vitellius, and the Propaganda of Vespasian,” The Classical Journal  60, 6, 267-269.

Fersen, Alessandro, 1973, “Psicodramma e mnemodrama,” reprinted on the website for the Instituto per lo Psicodramma ad Orientamento Dinamico: 

Fiedler, Leonhard, 1972, “Hofmannsthals Ballettpantomime Die grüne Flöte: Zu verschiedenen Fassungen des Librettos,” in Norbert Altenhofer (ed.), Hofmannsthal-Blätter 8-9, Frankfurt: Hugo von Hofmannsthal Gesellschaft, 113-145.

_____, 2009, “nicht Wort,- aber mehr als Wort: Zwischen Sprache und Tanz—Grete Wiesenthal und Hugo von Hofmannsthal,” in Gabrielle Bradstetter and Gunhild Oberzaucher-Schüler (eds.), Mundart der wiener Moderne: Der Tanz der Grete Wiesental, Munich: Kieser, 127-150.

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Film Archiv Austria, 2017, Description of the film Die kleine Veronika (1930) posted on the Il Cinema Ritrovato Festival website:

Filmek Kedvenc, 2015, Episode from 1988 of the Hungarian TV series Szimat szörény posted on the Filmek Kedvenc YouTube channel. Venezianische Nacht Materialien/Kritik, 2017, web page for the Venezianische Nacht (1913) on the website

Findlay, Gavin, 2016, The Dogtroep Legacy, a series of video lectures/conversations on Dogtroep posted on the Gavin Findlay YouTube channel.

Fischer-Kesselmann, Heidemarie, 1988, “Eine femininistische Filmanalyse,” Augen-Blick 6, Wege der Filmanalyse: Ingmar Bergman: Das Schweigen, 31-48.

Fleischer, Mary, 2007, Embodied Texts: Symbolist Playwright-Dancer Collaborations, Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi.

Fokine, Mikhail, 1961, Fokine, Memoirs of a Ballet Master, translated by Vitale Fokine, Boston: Little Brown.

Forbes, Jill, 1997, Les Enfants du paradis, London: British Film Institute.

Forrest, Jennifer, 2013, “Artists Unknown: The Poetics of Anonymity in Jean Richepin’s Braves gens,” Romance Studies 31, 2, 101-112.

Forse, James, 2002, “Religious Drama and Ecclesiastical Reform in the Tenth Century,” Early Theatre 5, 2, 47-70.

Foster, Susan Leigh, 1998, Choreography and Narrative: Ballet’s Staging of Story and Desire, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Franconi, Henri, 1815, Geneviève ou La confiance trahie, pantomime en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

Frasnedi, Fabrizio, 1984, “Il genio pantomimico: i fantasmi del ballo d’azione,” in Ezio Raimondi (ed.), 1984, Il sogno del coreodramma: Salvatore Viganò, poeta muto, Bologna: Mulino, 241-326.

Frentz, Hans, 1930, Niddy Impekoven und ihre Tänze, Freiburg im Breisgau: Urban.

Fronto, Marcus Cornelius, 1867, M. Cornelii Frontonis et M. Aurelii Imperatoris epistulae; L. Veri et T. Antonini Pii et Appiani epistularum reliquiae, Leipzig: Teubner.

_____, 2013, Selected Letters, translated by Caillan Davenport and Jennifer Manley, London: Bloomsbury. 

Feuillet, Raoul-Auger, 1701, Choréographie, ou l’art de d’écrire la danse, Paris: Brunet. 

Fuchs, Livia, 2000, “Hungary,” in Andree Grau and Stephanie Jordan (eds.), Europe Dancing: Perspectives on Theatre, Dance, and Cultural Identity, London: Routledge, 79-93.

Fürjesné, Orsolya Huszár, 2008, Pantomim Retro: Egy műfaj fellendülése az 1970-es, 1980-as évek Magyarországán, Diploma Thesis: Pannonia University, online

Futrell, Alison, 2006, The Roman Games: A Sourcebook, Oxford: Blackwell.

Gad, Urban, 1919, Filmen dens midler og maal, Copenhagen: Gyldendal. 

Galiffe, James August, 1820, Italy and Its Inhabitants, an Account of a Tour in That Country in 1816 and 1817, 2 vols., London, Murray. 

Gallagher, Lauren, 2016, “Camille Boitel—L’Immédiat—New York,” Dance Tabs (March 14), online

Garafola, Lynn, 2005, Legacies of Twentieth Century Dance, Middletown, Wesleyan University Press. 

Gardel, Pierre-Gabriel, 1793, Le jugement de Paris, ballet-pantomime en trois actes, Paris: Delormel. 

Garduño, Flor and Guyette Lyr, 1997, Mummenschanz 1972-1997, Altstätten: Tobler.

Garelick, Rhonda, 2007, Electric Salome: Loie Fuller’s Performance of Modernism, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Garelli, Marie-Hélène, 2007, Danser le mythe: La pantomime et sa réception dans la culture antique, Louvain: Peeters.

Garrick, David, 1759, Harlequins Invasion, handwritten manuscript of the play in the Boston Public Library, digitized at 

_____, 1980, The Plays of David Garrick, 2 vols., edited by Harry William Pedicord and Fredrick Louis Bergman, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Gaullard-Desaudray, Charles, 1793, Adele de Sacy, in L’Esprit des journauxet étrangere, October 1793 issue, under the title “Théâtre du Lycée des Arts,” 347-352.

Gautier, Théophile, 1842, “Shakspeare aux Funambules,” Revue de Paris 9,1, 60-66.

_____, 1859, Histoire de l’art dramatique en France depuis vingt-cinq ans, Brussels: Hetzel.

Geiger, Michael, 2013, Gallienus. Frankfurt am Main, Bern: Lang.

Geoffroy, Julien-Louis, 1819-1820, Cours de littérature dramatique, ou Recueil par ordre de matières des feuilletons de Geoffroy, 5 vols., Paris: Blanchard.

Gérard, Naly and Marinette Delanné, 2017, Ilka Schönbeinun théâtre charnel, Montreuil: Editions de l’Oeil.

Gergel, Richard, 1994, “Costume as Geographic Indicator: Barbarians and Prisoners on Cuirassed Statue Breastplates,” Judith Lynn Sebesta and Larissa Bonfante (eds.), The World of Roman Costume, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 

Gerhard, Eduard, 1843-1867, Etruskische Spiegel, Berlin: Reimer.

Gibson, Roy, 2012, “Gallus, the First Roman Love Elegist,” in Barbara Gold (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Roman Love Elegy, Oxford: Blackwell, 172-186.

Gilliam, Bryan, 1994, “ Stage and Screen: Kurt Weill and Operatic Reform in the 1920s,” in Bryan Gilliam (ed.), Music and Performance During the Weimar Republic, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-12.

Gilman, Abigail, 2009, Viennese Jewish Modernism: Freud, Hofmannsthal, Beer-Hofmann and Schnitzler, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Ginisty, Paul, 1907, Mémoires d’une danseuse de corde: Mme Saqui (1786-1866), Paris: Fasquelle.

_____, 1910, Le mélodrame, Paris: Louis-Michaud. 

Ginner, Ruby, 1933, The Revived Greek Dance, London: Methuen.

Girard-Laterre, Marion, 2011, “L’objet et l’acteur au corps à corps: une envelope corporelle commune dans le pratique d’Ilka Schönbein,” Agon 4, online

Gluck, Christoph Willibald, 1993, Don Juan. Semiramis, Ballet Pantomimes, Tafelmusik, conducted by Bruno Weil, 2 CDs, New York: Sony Classics. 

Goette, Hans Rupprecht, 1990, Studien zu Römischen Togadarstellungen, Mainz: Zabern. 

Goff, Moira, 1995, “‘The Art of Dancing, Demonstrated by Characters and Figures’: French and English Sources for Court and Theatre Dance, 1700–1750,” British Library Journal 21, no. 2, 202–231. 

Goldberg, Isaac, 1920, “The Intellectual Ferment in Post-Bellum Italy,” The Bookman 50, 2, 149-154.

Goldberg, Susanna, 1988, “Fritz von Herzmanowsky-Orlando: ein Sammler des Abstrusen und Irrationalen,” Austriaca 27, 101-109. 

Goldman, Norma, 1994a, “Reconstructing Roman Clothing,” Judith Lynn Sebesta and Larissa Bonfante (eds.), The World of Roman Costume, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 

_____, 1994b, “Roman Footwear,” Judith Lynn Sebesta and Larissa Bonfante (eds.), The World of Roman Costume, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Goldmann, Paul, 1905, Aus dem dramatischen Irrgarten. Polemische Aufsätze über Berliner Theateraufführungen, Frankfurt: Rütten und Loening.

Gombosi, Otto, 1939, Tonarten und Stimmungen der antiken Musik, Copenhagen: Munksgaard.

Gómez de la Serna, Ramón, 1911, La Bailarina,pantomima, Madrid: Bartolozzi.

Gonon, Pierre-Marie, 1844, Bibliographie historique de la ville de Lyon, pendant la révolution francaise, Lyon: Marle.

Goodden, Angelica, 1986, Actio and Persuasion. Dramatic Performance in Eighteenth Century France, Oxford: Calrendon Press.

Görkay, Kutalmış, Pascale Linant de Bellefonds and Évelyne Prioux, 2006, “Some Observations on the Theonoe Mosaic from Zeugma,” Anadolu/Anatolia 31, 19-31.

Goudar, Ange, 1759, Observations sur les trois derniers ballets pantomimes qui ont paru aux Italiens & aux François: sçavoir, Télémaque, Le sultan généreux, La mort d’Orphée, Paris: Duchesne.

Goudar, Sara [Ange], 1777, Oeuvres mêlées de Madame Sara Goudar, Amsterdam: unidentified publisher.

Graetz, Heinrich, 1902 [1875], History of the Jews, Vol. 2, Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America.

_____, 1908 [1875], Geschichte der Juden von den ältesten zeiten bis auf die GegenwartVol. 4, Leipzig: Leiner. 

Greatrex, Geoffrey and John Watt, 1999, “One, Two or Three Feasts? The Brytae, the Maiuma and the May Festival at Edessa,” Oriens Christianus 83, 1-21. 

The Greek Anthology, 1918, translated by W. R. Paton, Vol. 5, London: Heinemann.

Green, Lili, 1929, Einführung in das Wesen unserer Gesten und Bewegungen, Berlin: Oesterheld.

Grétry, André, 1829 [1789], Mémoires, ou essai sur la musique, Vol. 3, Paris: L’Imprimerie de la Republique. 

Grieco, Gennaro, 1979, “La grande frise de la Villa des Mystères et l’initiation dionysiaque,” La Parola del Passato 34, 417-441.

Gillar, Jaroslav and Paseková, Dana, 1971, Ladislav Fialka and Pantomime, Praha, Orbis. 

Grimm, Friedrich Melchior, 1829, Correspondance litteraire, philosophique et critique de Grimm et de Diderot, Vol. 6, Paris: Furne. 

_____, 1880, Correspondance litteraire, philosophique et critique par Grimm, Diderot, Vol. 12, Paris: Garnier. 

Gripenberg, Maggie, 1952, Trollbunden av rytmen, Helsingfors: Otava.

Groenewegen-Frankfort, Henriette, 1987 [1951], Arrest and Movement. An Essay on Space and Time in the Representational Art of the Near East, Cambirdge, MA: Belknap Press.

Grossvogel, David, 1961, 20thCentury French Drama, New York: Columbia University Press. 

Grysar, Carl, 1834, “Ueber die Pantomimen der Römer,” Rheinisches Museum für Philologie2, 30-80.

_____, 1838, “Pantomimische Kunst des Altertums,” in Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, Dritte Section, O-Z, Zehnter Teil Pales-Panus, Leipzig: Brockhaus, 485-492.

_____, 1854, “Der römische Mimus,” Sitzungsberichte der königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien 12, 237-337.

Guézou, Elodie, 2021, Curriculum Vita, on her website,

_____, 2020, “Contorsion,” video posted on Artcena and Vimeo.

_____, 2015, “Look Contorted – Etude n°2,” video posted on YouTube.

Guillaud, Jacqueline and Maurice, 1990, Frescoes in the Time of Pompeii, Paris: Guillaud Editions.

Guidobaldi, Maria Paola, 1992, Musica e danza (Vita e costumi dei Romani antichi), Rome: Quasar.

Gumpenhuber, Philippe, 2005 [1759], “Gumpenhuber’s Descriptions of Ballets Performed in the Kärtnertortheater during 1759 (excluding end of 1758–59 season),” compiled and translated by Bruce Alan Brown, in Rebecca Harris-Warrick and Bruce Alan Brown (eds.), The Grotesque Dancer on the Eighteenth-Century Stage: Gennaro Magri and His World, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 312-319.

Gutjahr, Ortrud, 2001, “Erziehung zur Schamlosigkeit. Frank Wedekinds Mine-Hahaoder Über die körperliche Erziehung der jungen Mädchen und der intertextuelle Bezug zu Frühlings Erwachen,” in Gutjahr, O (ed.) Frank Wedekind: Freiburger Literaturpsychologische Gespräche, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 93–124.

Haan, Gonneke de, 2003, locatie +/-. Over de meerwaarde van locatietheater, Amsterdam: HKU Theaterbibliotheek (pdf).

Habšudová, Zuzana, 2002, “Returned mime leaves home—for good this time,” The Slovak Spectator (May 27), online

Häger, Bengt, 1990, Ballet Suédois, translated by Ruth Sharman, New York: Abrams.

Hafemann, Katrin, 2010, Schamlose Tänze. Bewegungs-Szenen in Frank Wedekinds Lulu-Doppeltragödie und Mine-Haha oder Über die körperliche Erziehung der jungen Mädchen, Würzburg, Königshausen & Neumann.

Hagigah, 1891, A Translation of the Treatise Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud, translated by Annesley William Streane, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Halbreich, Harry, 1999, Arthur Honegger, translated by Roger Nichols, Portland: Amadeus Press. 

Hale, Philip, 1913, “La Tragédie de Salomé for Orchestra, after a poem by Robert d’Humières, Op. 50, Florent Schmitt,” Boston Symphony Orchestra Program, December 5, 7-18.

_____, 1918, “Historical and Descriptive Notes for the Seventeenth Afternoon and Evening Concerts, March 8thand March 9th,” Boston Symphony Orchestra Program, Boston: Ellis, 1031-1069. 

Hall, Edith, 2008, “Ancient Pantomime and the Rise of Ballet,” in Edith Hall and Rosie Wyles (eds.), 2008, New Directions in Ancient Pantomime, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 363-377.

_____, 2013, “Pantomime: Visualising Myth in the Roman Empire,” in George Harrison and Vayos Liapis (eds.), Performance in Greek and Roman Theatre, Leiden: Brill, 451-473.

Hall, Edith and Rosie Wyles (eds.), 2008, New Directions in Ancient Pantomime, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haldorsen, Benjamin, 2006, Mensendieck og musikk: musikk som virkemiddel til å skape treningsglede i mensendiecktrening, Master’s Thesis in Musicology, Oslo University.

Halvorsen, Grethe, 2009, Mensendieckutdanning i Norge 1912-2008: En faghistorisk reise, Oslo: Vett & Viten.

Hambourg, Maria Morris, Francois Heilbrun, and Philippe Neagu (eds.), 1995, Nadar, New York: Abrams and Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Hammond, Sandra, 2005, “International Elements of Dance Training in the Late Eighteenth Century,” in Rebecca Harris-Warrick and Bruce Alan Brown (eds.), The Grotesque Dancer on the Eighteenth~Century Stage: Gennaro Magri and His World, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 109-150.

Hamon, Philippe, 1999, “Pierrot photographe,” in Romantisme, 105, L’imaginaire photographique, 35-43. 

Handke, Peter, 1973, Stücke 2, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.

_____, 1992, Die Stunde da wir nichts voneinander wussten, ein Schauspiel, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. 

Handke, Peter and Michael Roloff, 1970, “My Foot My Tutor,” The Drama Review 15, 1, 62-83.

Hanisch, Michael, 1993, “Die Insel der Seligen,” in Günther Dahlke and Günther Karl (eds.), Deutsche Spielfilme von den Anfängen bis 1933. Ein Filmführer, Berlin: Henschel, 22-23.

Hannon, Theodore, 1886, Pierrot macabre, ballet Pantomime en deux Tableaux, Brussels: Bergame.

Hansell, Kathleen, 2002, “Theatrical Ballet and Italian Opera,” in Lorenzo Bianconi and Giorgio Pestelli (eds.), Opera on Stage, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 178-295.

_____, 2005, “Eighteenth-Century Italian Theatrical Ballet,” in Rebecca Harris-Warrick and Bruce Alan Brown (eds.), The Grotesque Dancer on the Eighteenth~Century Stage: Gennaro Magri and His World, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 15-32.

Hapdé, Augustin, 1811, L’Enlèvement de Hélène et le fameux cheval de Troye, pantomime in quatre actes,Paris: Barba.

_____, 1814, De l’Anarchie théâtrale, ou de la Nécessité de remettre en vigueur les lois et les règlements relatifs aux différents genres des spectacles de Paris, Paris: Dentu.

_____, 1817, Les visions de Macbeth, ou Les sorcières d’Écosse, mélodrame en 3 actes, Paris: Delaunay.

Hart, Hilary, 2005, “Do You See What I See? The Impact of Delsarte on Silent Film Acting,” Mime Journal 23, 184-199, online DOI: 10.5642/mimejournal.20052301.11.

Hartley, Marsden, 1924, “The Reinhardt Machine,” in Oliver Sayler (ed.), Max Reinhardt and His Theater, New York: Brentano’s, 89-97. 

Hartnett, Kevin, 2014, “Marcel Marceau and the end of mime,” Boston Globe (August 1), online

Hartog, Willie Gustave, 1913, Guilbert de Pixerécourt: sa vie, son mélodrame, sa technique et son influence, Paris: Champion.

Hasenclever, Walter, 1920, Die Pest, ein Film, Berlin: Cassirer.

_____, 1963, Gedichte, Dramen, Prosa, edited by Kurt Pinthus, Reinbeck bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.

Hauptmann, Carl, 1905, Die Austreibung, tragisches Schauspiel, Munich: Callwey.

_____, 1923 [1919], “Film und Theater,” in Hugo Zehder (ed.), Der Film von Morgen, Berlin: Kaemmerer, 11-20.

Hausbrandt, Andrzej, 1975, Tomaszewski’s Mime Theatre, Warsaw: Interpress. 

Heartz, Daniel, 1995, Haydn, Mozart and the Viennese School 1740-1780, New York: Norton.

Heather, Peter and John Matthews, 1991,The Goths in the Fourth Century, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. 

Heggen, Claire and Yves Marc, 1978, Les mutants, video, lighting by Gerard Le Cardinal, 2006 copy in the Bibliothèque nationale de France.

_____, 2005a, Blancs . . . sous le masque, video of the performance at the Théâtre du Lierre, directed by Claire Heggen and Nils De Coster, DVD available at

_____, 2005b, Le chemin se fait en marchant, video of the performance at an unspecified theater, directed by Claire Heggen and Nils De Coster, DVD available at

_____, 2017, Théâtre du movement, Montpellier: Deuxième époque.

_____, 2020 [1990], Tezirzek:Les animaux, video fragment posted on the Institute National de l’Audiovisuel (INA) website, Fresques interactives:

Heike, 2011, Videos of performances by Ilka Schönbein of scenes from Metamorphosen posted on the Georg Heike YouTube channel.

Heilman, Robert, 1968, Tragedy and Melodrama, Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Heisler, Wayne, 2009, The Ballet Collaborations of Richard Strauss, Rochester: University of Rochester Press. 

Helavouri, Hanna-Leena, Jukka Kukkonen, Riita Raatikainen, and Tuomo-Juhani Vuorenmaa (eds.), 1997, Valokuvan tanssi: Suomalaisen tanssin kuvat 1890-1997; Dance in Finnish Photography, Oulu: Pohjoinen. 

Hemming, Eva, 2015 [1991], A Smile to Youth [Hymy nuoruudelle: muistelmat], translated by Evita Wager, Bloomington: Author House. 

Hennique, Leon, and Joris-Karl Huysmans, 1881, Pierrot Sceptique, pantomime, Paris: Rouveyre.

Henry, G. Kenneth G., 1919, “Roman Actors,” Studies in Philology, 16, 4, 334-383. 

Henry, Louis, 1816, Hamlet, pantomime tragique en trois actes, Paris: Barba.

_____, 1817, Hamlet, Grosses Ballet in fünf Acten, translated by Robert von Gallenberg, Vienna: Wallishaussen.

Hera, Janina, 1981 [1975], Der verzauberte Palast: aus der Geschichte der Pantomime, translated by Birgitt Pitschmann, Berlin: Henschel.

_____, 1983, Henryk Tomaszewski I jego teatr, Warsaw: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy.

Herald, Heinz, 1918, Max Reinhardt, ein Versuchüber das Wesen der modernen Regie, Berlin: Lehmann.

Heresch, Elisabeth, 1977, “Schnitzler im Russland,” Modern Austrian Literature 10, 3, 283-308.

Hero of Alexandria, 1851, The Pneumatics of Hero of Alexander, translated by Bennet Woodcroft, London: Taylor, Walton and Maberly.

Herodian of Antioch, 1961, History of the Roman Empire, translated by Edward C. Echols, online at

Herzmanowsky-Orlando, Fritz, 1991, Erzählungen, Pantomimen und BalletteSalzburg: Residenz.

Hicks, Jesse, 2012, “Terrorism as Art: Mark Pauline’s Dangerous Machines: Robots, Rebellion, and the Post-Apocalyptic Performance Art of Survival Research Labs,” The Verge(October 9), online

Hiebler, Heinz, 2003, Hugo von Hofmannsthal und die Medienkultur der Moderne, Würzburg: Königshausen und Neumann.

Hieronymous (St. Jerome), 2016 [1866-1875], Chronological Tables, translated by A. Schoene, Washington:

Hill, Leslie, 2007, The Cambridge Introduction to Jacques Derrida, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Him-Aquilli, Manon, 2012, “Les enfants du paradis: de la pantomime au cinéma,” blog post on the website délie des langues:

Hinton, Stephen, 2012, Weill’s Musical Theater: Stages of Reform, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Historia Augusta, 1921, translated by David Magie, Vol. 1, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

_____, 1924, translated by David Magie, Vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

_____, 1932, translated by David Magie, Vol. 3, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Histoire anecdotique et raisonnée du Théâtre italien, 1769, Vol. 5, Paris: Lacombe.

“The History of a Critic,” 1876, Scribner’s Monthly 11, 6, 823-835. 

Hobbs, Richard, 2012, The Mildenhall Treasure, London: British Museum.

Hodgkin, Thomas, 1891, Theodoric the Goth, the Barbarian Champion of Civilization, New York: Putnam.

_____, 1892, Italy and Her Invaders, Vol. 2, Oxford: Clarendon Press. 

Hof, Samuel, 2014, “Lichtung: Geräuschtheater von und mit Martin Heidegger,” commentary on the “noise theater” piece posted online

Hofmannsthal, Hugo von, 1911, Grete Wiesenthal in Amor und Psyche und Das fremde Mädchen, Berlin: S. Fischer.

_____, 1955, Gesammelte Werke in Einzelausgaben, Vol. 4, Prosa, Frankfurt: S. Fischer.

_____, 1979a, Gesammelte WerkeReden und Aufsätze,Vol. 8, edited by Bernd Schoeller and Rudolf Hirsch, Frankfurt: S. Fischer.

_____, 2006, Sämtliche Werke XXVII: Balletten, Pantomimen, Filmszenarien, Frankfurt: S. Fischer. 

_____, 2008,The Whole Difference: Selected Writings of Hugo von Hofmannsthal, translated by J. D. McClatchy, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hogan, Charles Beecher (ed.), 1968, The London Stage 1660-1800 A Calendar of Plays, Entertainments & Afterpieces together with Casts, Box-Office Receipts and Contemporary Comment, Part 5, Vol. 2, Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press. 

Hohmeier, Simone, 2012, “Die Verfolgung oder Fünfzehn Minuten Irrsinn–Hanns Eisler und Béla Balázs,” in Hartmut Krones (ed.), Hanns Eisler–Ein Komponist ohne Heimat? Vienna: Böhlau Verlag, 53–64.

Holeňová, Jana (ed.), 2001, Český taneční slovník: tanec, balet, pantomime, Praha: Divadelní ústav.

Holeschofsky, Georg, 2012, Ein komischer Autor. Eine Untersuchung der Komik in Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlandos Komödie Prinz Hamlet der Osterhase oder “Selawie” oder Baby Wallenstein mit Hilfe der Komiktheorie Henri Bergsons, Master’s Thesis: University of Vienna.

Holl, Karl, 1919, “Das Jahr des Frankfurter Opernhauses,” Deutsche Bühne Jahrbuch der Frankfurter Städtischen BühnenVol. 1, 298-313.

Hollis, Adrian, 2007, Fragments of Roman Poetry, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Holmes, Richard, 2000, Sidetracks: Explorations of a Romantic Biographer, New York Random House.

Holmström, Kirsten Gram, 1967, Monodrama, Attitudes, Tableaux Vivants: Studies on Some Trends of Theatrical Fashion 1770-1815, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.

Holzer, Rudolf, 1899, Marionettentreue, Pantomime in drei Bildern, Vienna: Künast.

Homans, Jennifer, 2010, Apollo’s Angels: A History of Ballet, New York: Random House.

Horst, Pieter van der, 2006, Jews and Christians in Their Graeco-Roman Context, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Hoste, Marcel, 1967, Aperitief tot de mime, Brugge: Verbeke-Loys.

Howe, Thomas, 2007, “Powerhouses: The Seaside Villas of Campania in the Power Culture of Rome,” Pier Giovanni Guzzo, Giovanna Bonifacio, and Anna Maria Sodo (eds.),Otium ludens: Stabiae, at the Heart of the Roman Empire, Castellammare di Stabia: Longobardi, 13-20.

Huber-Wiesenthal, Rudolf, 1934, Die Schwestern Wiesenthal: ein Buch eigenen Erlebens, Vienna: Saturn.

Hübsch-Pfleger, Lini, 1997, Waldemar Bonsels und die Tänzerin Edith von Schrenck, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Hudson, Holland, 1921, The Shepherd in the Distance, a pantomime in three scenes,Cincinnati: Stewart Kidd.

Huguonet, Paul, 1889, Mimes et Pierrots, notes etdocuments inédits pour servir à l’histoire de la pantomime, Paris: Fischbacher.

_____, 1892, La musique et la pantomime, Paris: Kolb.

Hülsen, Christian, 1932, “Neue Fragmentder Acta ludorum saeculariumvon 204 nachChr.,” Rh. Mus., N. F., 81, 366-394.

Humphrey, John, 1986, Roman Circuses, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Icks, Martijn, 2011, The Crimes of Elagabalus: The Life and Legacy of Rome’s Decadent Boy Emperor, London: Taurus.

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Impe, Anaëlle, 2014, “The Grotesque as a paradigm of the Puppet Theater in the 21st Century through an analysis of Ilka Schönbein’s show, The Old Lady and the Beast,” paper presented at the conference Dolls and Puppets as Artistic and Cultural Phenomenon, The Aleksander Zelwerowicz/National Academy of Dramatic Art in Warsaw/The Department of Puppetry Art in Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

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Jacob of Sarugh, 1935, “Jacob of Serugh’s Homilies on the Spectacles of the Theater,” translated by Cyril Moss, Le Muséon 48, 87–112. 

_____, 2008, “Homilies on the Spectacles of the Theatre,” translated by Cyril Moss, in Edith Hall and Rosie Wyles (eds.), New Directions in Ancient Pantomime, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 412-419.

Jahn, Otto, 1867, “Scenische Vorstellungen. Silberplatte im Collegio Romano,” Archäologische Zeitung XXV, 225, 73-78.

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Jameson, Anna Brownell, 1826, Diary of an Ennuyée, London: Colburn.

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_____, 1881, Deburau: histoire du théâtre à quatre sous, Paris: Librairie des Bibliophiles.

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Johnson, Samuel, and George Steevens (eds.), 1780, Supplement to the Edition of Shakespeare’s Plays Published in 1778, Vol. 2, London: Bathurst. 

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Jones, Christopher, 1991, “Dinner Theater,” William J. Slater (ed.), Dining in a Classical Context, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 185-196.

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Jory, John, 1970, “Associations of Actors in Rome,” Hermes 98/2, 224-253. 

_____, 1981, “The Literary Evidence for the Beginnings of Imperial Pantomime,” Bulletin for the Institute for Classical Studies, 28, 147-161. 

_____, 1984, “The Early Pantomime Riots,” Maistor, Byzantina-Australiensia 5, 57-66.

_____, 1996, “The Drama of the Dance. Prolegomena to an Iconography of Imperial Pantomime,” Slater, W. J. (ed.), Roman Theater and Society, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

_____, 2001, “Some Cases of Mistaken Identity? Pantomime Masks and Their Context,” Bulletin for the Institute for Classical Studies 45, 1-20.

Joshua the Stylite, 1882, “A History of the Time of Affliction at Edessa and Amida and throughout All Mesopotamia,” translated by William Wright, on the web page Joshua the Stylite, Chronicle composed in Syriac in AD 507 (1882) pp.1-76.

Julia, ou la vestale, pantomime en trois actes, 1786, Paris: Lormel. 

Jullien, Adolphe, 1874, Histoire du théâtre de Madame Pompadour, Paris: Baur.

Jung, Uli and Walter Schatzberg, 1994, “The Silent ‘Rosenkavalier’: A Film by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Richard Strauss and Robert Wiene,” Modern Austrian Literature 27, 2, 77-89.

_____, 1999, Beyond Caligari: The Films of Robert Wiene, New York: Berghahn.

Jürs-Munby, Karen, 2007, “Hanswurst and Herr Ich: Subjection and Abjection in Enlightenment Censorship of the Comic Figure,” New Theatre Quarterly 23, 2, 124-135. 

Kaes, Anton, 1978, Kino-DebatteTexte zum Verhältnis von Literatur und Film 1909-1929, Munich, Tübingen: dtv, Niemeyer.

Kalonyme, Louis, 1926, “The Dancing of Angna Enters,” The Arts 9, 278-279.

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Karsai, Veronika, 2009-2017, Videos of performances by Veronika Karsai posted on the Karsai Veronika, Robert B. Suda, and Lajos KulcsárYouTube channels. 

Kassabova, Kapka, 2013, “Shadow plays,” Aeon, online

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Kayiatos, Anastasia, 2010, “Sooner Speaking than Silent, Sooner Silent than Mute: Soviet Deaf Theatre and Pantomime after Stalin,” Theatre Survey 51, 3, 5-31. 

_____, 2012, Silence and Alterity in Russia after Stalin, 1955-1975, Doctoral Dissertation: University of California Berkeley. 

Keiner, Reinhold, 1988, Hanns Heinz Ewers und der phantastische Film, Hildescheim: Olms.

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Keysell, Pat, 1985 [1975], Pantomime für Kinder, Ravensburg: Maier.

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Kirstein, Lincoln, 1970, Movement and Metaphor: Four Centuries of Ballet, New York: Praeger.

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Klemming, G. E., 1879, Sveriges Dramatiska Litteratur till och med 1875, Stockholm: Norstedt.

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Kokolakis, Minos, 1959, “Pantomimus and the Treatise de Saltatione,” Platon 10, 3-56.

_____, 1960, “Lucian and the Tragic Performances in His Time,” Platon 23-24, 67-109.

KolařovaPetra, 2015, Étienne Decroux (1898-1991): Portrait du mime en sculpteur. Figures du corps au croisement des arts du spectacle et des arts plastiques, Doctoral Dissertation: Histoire de l’art de l’Université de Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne et de l’Université Charles de Prague.

Kolb, Alexandra, 2009, Performing Femininity: Dance and Literature in German Modernism, Bern: Lang.

Köllő, Miklos, 2016, “…végigálmodtam az életemet,” Miklos Köllő interviewed by JánosRegős, Szcenarium4, 2, 90-104. 

Konstantinova, Anna, 2013, Феномен пластической драмы в творчестве Гедрюса Мацкявичюса [The Phenomenon of Plastic Drama in the Works of Giedrius Mackevičius], abbreviated doctoral thesis posted online in conjunction with the oral defense of the dissertation

_____, 2015, “ТРИ ЮБИЛЕЯ ПЛАСТИЧЕСКОЙ ДРАМЫ МОДРИС ТЕНИСОНС, ГЕДРЮС МАЦКЯВИЧЮС ПЛАСТИЧЕСКАЯ ДРАМА ПРЕОДОЛЕНИЕ[Three Anniversaries of Plastic Drama. Modris Tenisons, Giedrius Mackevičius’s Plastic Drama Overcoming],”State Institute for Arts Studies 3-4, 220-236. 

Konstantinova, Anna and Liucija Armonaitė, 2015, “Lietuvoje pamirštas pasaulyje garsinamas menininkas,” Naujoji Romuva 3, 2-9.

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Kristal Archive, 1981, 1988, 2017, a collection of programs, newspaper articles, and images related to Maret Kristal collected by Heili Einasto. 

Kristberga, Laine, 2016, “Interdisciplinary Approaches to Documenting Latvian Performance Art,” Culture Crossroads 9, 139-150, online

Kroma Productions, 2015, “Scaramouche,” web page devoted to the Kroma Productions multimedia production of Scaramoucheat the Espoo Culture Center, January 2015, including information about the video made of the production. 

Ksamka, 2016, Ilka Schönbein, Theater Meschugge, promotional brochure issued by the Ksamka Management Agency. 

Kuleshov, Lev, 1974, Kuleshov on Film, translated and edited by Ronald Levaco, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Kurg, Kalle, 2017, Email correspondence and conversations with Heili Einasto about his collaboration with Maret Kristal. 

_____, 2020, “Comments on Estonian Cold War Pantomime,” Word document containing commentary by Kurg in response to earlier drafts of the “Estonia” section of this book, delivered through email from Heili Einasto, May 24. 

Kurki, Eija, 2020, “Scaramouche: Sibelius’s Horror Story,” Sibelius One, 1, 2020, 7-28.

_____, 2021, “Einar Nilson – composer of the first Jedermann music,” Sibelius One, web essay.

Kurkinen, Marjaana, 2000, The Spectre of the Orient: Modern French Mime and Traditional Japanese Theatre in the 1930s, Doctoral Dissertation: University of Helsinki.

Kurtz, Maurice, 1999, Jacques Copeau, Biography of a Theater, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Kutscher, Arthur, 1922, Frank Wedekind: Sein Leben und seine Werke, Vol. 1, Munich: Müller.

Kuuspu, Keithy, 2019, Iha, digital file folder containing a link to video of the performance of Iha at Kanuti Gild, Tallinn, Estonia, April 2019, shot by Roman Pankratov, a set of 92 photos of the performance taken by Fideelia-Signe Roots, and a pdf copy of Kuuspu’s academic report on the project, “Loov-praktiline uurimistöö, seksuaaliha uurimine läbi lavastuse Iha.” 

Kyle, Donald, 2007, Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, Malden, MA:  Blackwell.

Lacey, Alexander, 1928, Pixérécourt and the French Romantic Drama, Toronto: Toronto University Press.

Lacheaux, Jean Claude, 1979, Théâtres et amphithéâtres d’Afrique proconsulaire, Aix-en-Provence: Edisud. 

Lanckrock, Rik, 1971, “M.A.J. Hoste, pionier van de mime in Vlaanderen,” Ons Erfdeel 14, 142-144.

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Lada-Richards, Ismene, 2007, Silent Eloquence: Lucian and Pantomime Dancing, London: Duckworth.

_____, 2008, “Was Pantomime ‘good to think with?’” in Hall, Edith and Rosie Wyles (eds.), 2008, New Directions in Ancient Pantomime, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 285-313. 

Lagrave, Henri, 1972, Le théâtre et le public à Paris de 1715 à 1750, Paris: Klincksiek.

Lamont, Rosette, 1987, “To Speak the Words of ‘The Tribe.’ The Wordlessness of Samuel Beckett’s Metaphysical Clowns,” in Katherine Burkman (ed.), Myth and Ritual in the Plays of Samuel Beckett, Madison: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 56-70.

Lang, Erwin, 1910, Grete Wiesenthal: Holzschnitte von Erwin Lang, Berlin: Reiss.

Langen, Marijn de, 2017, Mime denken: Nederlandse mime als manier van denken in en door de theaterpraktijk, Doctoral Dissertation: Universiteit Utrecht.

Larcher, Félix, 1887, Pantomimes de Paul Legrand, Paris: Librairie Théâtrale.

La Regina, Adriano (ed.), 2001, Sangue e arena, Rome: Electa.

Larionov, Denis, 2017, “Unread pantomime: Evgenii Kharitonov’s dissertation in the context of his artistic creativity and Soviet theories of dance,” Shagi / Steps 3, 1, 185-198.

Lasker-Schüler, Elisabeth, 1914, Gesichte, Essays und andere Geschichte, Leipzig: Weissen Bücher.

Latte, Kurt, 1913, De saltationibus Graecorum armatis, Giessen: Toepelmann.

Latvian National Library, 2022, “Roberta Ligera (1931–2013) vadītā „Rīgas pantomīma”, 20. gadsimta 60. gadu beigas – 70. gadi,” in Latvijas Kulturas Kanon, website archive.

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_____, 1943, “Orchesis Ionike,” Transactions of the American Philological Association74, 60-71.

_____, 1946, “The Geranos Dance—A New Interpretation,” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 77, 112-130.

_____, 1974 [1965], The Dance of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.

Lawrence, W. J., 1886, “The Progress of Pantomime,” The Gentleman’s Magazine, 261, 544-555. 

Leabhart, Thomas, 1989, Modern and Post-Modern Mime, London: Macmillan.

_____, 2003, “Paroles de sagesse du vendredi soir,” in Patrick Pezin (ed.), Étienne Decroux, mime corporel, Saint-Jean-de-Védas: L’Entretemps, 431-439.

_____, 2007, Etienne Decroux, London: Routledge.

Leavitt, M. B., 1912, Fifty Years Theatrical Management, New York: Broadway Publishing.

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Lecomte, Louis-Henry, 1908, Histoire des théâtres de Paris, [Vol. 7] Les Variétés Amusantes, Paris: Daragon.

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Lefebvre, Léon, 1890, Un chapitre de l’histoire du théâtre de Lille, Lille: Lefebvre-Ducrocq.

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Leis, Aime and Ülle Ulla, 2006, Ballett sajandivanuses “Estonias”, Tallinn: Eesti Teatriliit.

Leistikow, Gertrud, 1912, Orchestische Tanzspiele[Concert Program], Munich: Maximillian Burg.

Lemaitre, Jules, 1889, Impressions de théatre, Paris: Oudin.

_____, 1891a, “Causerie Théâtrale,” Les Annales politiques et littéraire 9, 95, 40-41. 

_____, 1891b, “Causerie Théâtrale,” Les Annales politiques et littéraire 9, 410, 281-282.

Lemonnier, Camille, 1894a, Le Mort, pantomime en trois actes en quatre tableaux, Brussels: Breitkopf & Haertel. 

_____, 1894b,Le Mort, mimodrame en trois parties, Brussels: Lithographie Populaire.

_____, 1910, Le Mort; roman, tragédie et pantomime. Paris: La Renaissance du livre.

_____, 1922, Le Mort, pantomime en trois actes, Paris: Frazier-Soye.

Lempfrid, Wolfgang, 2018, “Der Skandal als Publikum: Bartok, Der wunderbare Mandarin,” web pages devoted to the theme Skandal und Provokation in der Musik, posted on the website KölnKlavier:

L’Enlèvement, ou La caverne dans les Pyrénées , pantomime en trois actes, du citoyen, 1792, Paris: Prault.

Leppin, Hartmut, 1992, Histrionen. Untersuchungen zur sozialen Stellung von Bühnenkünstlern im Westen des Römischen Reiches zur Zeit der Republik und des Principats, Bonn: Habelt. 

Lesage, Alain-René, 1733, Le Théâtre de la Foire ou l’opéra-comique, Vol. 2, Amsterdam: Chatelain.

Lesage, Alain-René, 1810, Oeuvres choises de Lesage, Vol. 3, Paris: Leblanc.

_____, 1905, Turcaret, introduced by W. A. R. Kerr, Boston: Heath. 

Lesage, Alain-René and Jacques-Philippe d’Orneval, 1731, Le Théâtre de la Foire ou l’opéra-comique, Vol. 4, Amsterdam: Chatelain.

Lettische Avantgarde, 1988, Exhibition catalogue edited by Neue Gesellschaft für bildende Kunst, Berlin: Elefanten Press.

Levillain, Adèle Dowling, 1943, The Evolution of Pantomime in France, Master’s Thesis: Boston University.

Levetzow, Carl [Karl], 1902, Pierrots Leben, Leiden und Himmelfahrt. Eine tragische Pantomime in 7 Bildern, Leipzig: Seemann.

_____, 1905, “Zur Renaissance der Pantomime,” Die SchaubühneVol. 1, Nos. 3, 6, 7, 125-130; 159-162; 194-198.

Levitz, Tamara, 2012, Modernist Mysteries: Perséphone, New York: Oxford University Press.

Lewin, Ariel, 1999, “Councils,” in Peter Brown and Oleg Grabar (eds.), Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 397-398.

Lewinsky, Mariann, 1997, Eine verrückte Seite: Stummfilm und filmische Avantgarde in Japan, Zürich: Chronos.

Lewis, Tim, 2016, “Lindsay Kemp: I was destined for stardom… I’m still waiting for it,” The Guardian(24 April), online 

Lexová, Irene, 2000 [1935], Ancient Egyptian Dances, translated by K. Halmar, Mineola, New York: Dover. 

Leyerle, Blake, 2001, ‪Theatrical Shows and Ascetic Lives: John Chrysostom’s Attack on Spiritual Marriage, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Libanius, 1908, Libanii Opera, Richard Foerster (ed.), Vol. 4, Orationes LI-LXIV, Leipzig: Teubner. 

Liebeschuetz,J.H.W.G., 2001, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Lim, Richard, 1996, “Tribunus Voluptatumin the Later Roman Empire,” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 41, 163-173.

Lindblom, Gunnel, 1995, “Confessions of a Bergman Co-Worker,” in Roger W. Oliver (ed.), Ingmar Bergman: an Artist’s Journey on Stage, on Screen, in Print, New York: Arcade, 59-63.

Linhardt, Marion, 2009, “Zwischen Moderne und Populärkultur: Das ‘Wienerische’ der Grete Wiesenthal,” in Gabrielle Bradstetter and Gunhild Oberzaucher-Schüler (eds.), Mundart der wiener Moderne: Der Tanz der Grete Wiesental, Munich: Kieser, 41-56.

Lipus, 2008, Video of performance by Ilka Schönbein of the birth scene from Metamorphosenposted on the Ander Lipus YouTube channel. 

Lista, Giovanni (ed.), 1976, Le Théâtre Futuriste Italien, Vol. 2, Lausanne: L’Age d’Homme.

_____, 1994, Loïe Fuller, danseuse de la Belle Époque, Paris: Stock.

Livy, 1912 [1905], History of Rome, translated by Canon Roberts New York: Dutton, available through Perseus online archive. 

Locrine, 1734, The Tragedy of Locrine, the Eldest Son of King Brutus, ascribed to William Shakespeare, London: Tonson.

Longus, 1916, Daphnis and Chloe, translated by George Thornley, revised and augmented by J. M. Edmonds, New York: Putnam. 

Looijenga, Jantina Helena, 1997, Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700; texts & contexts, Doctoral Dissertation: University of Groningen.  

L’Orange, Hans Peter, 1971 [1958], Art Forms and Civic Life in the Late Roman Empire, translated by Knut Berg, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Lorch, Jennifer, 1969, “Carboni, Raffaello (1817–1875),” Australian Dictionary of Biography 1851-1890, Vol. 3, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press [online through the website Australian Dictionary of Biography].

Lowell, Marion, 1895, Harmonic Gymnastics and Pantomimic Expression, Boston: Lowell.

Lucian, 1936, “The Dance,” The Works of Lucian, Vol. 5, 209-289, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

Lucretius, 1916, De Rerum Natura, translated by Lucretius, William Ellery Leonard: New York: Dutton.

Lusk, Norbert, 1914, “Acting in the Silent Drama,” The Theatre 20, 161, 44-45.

Lust, Annette, 2000, FromGreek Mimes to Marcel Marceau and Beyond, Lanham: Scarecrow Press.

MacCoull, L. S. B., 1999, “Gallienus the Genderbender,” Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies40 (1999) 233–239.

Macintosh, Fiona, 2010a, “Dancing Maenads in Early Twentieth-Century Britain,” in Fiona Macintosh (ed.), The Ancient Dancer in the Modern World: Responses to Greek and Roman Dance, 188-209.

_____, 2010b, “Dancing like a maenad in the twentieth century,” Omnibus Special Issue 61, 24-25.

_____, 2011, “The Ancient Greeks and the ‘Natural,’” in Alexandra Carter and Rachel Fensham (eds.), Dancing Naturally: Nature, Neo-Classicism and Modernity in Early Twentieth Dance, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 43-56.

MacKay, Constance D’Arcy, 1917, The Little Theatre in the United States, New York: Holt.

MacMullen, Ramsay, 1964, “Some Pictures in Ammianus Marcellinus,” College Art Bulletin 46, 4, 435-455. 

Macrobius, Ambrosius Aurelius Theodosius, 1969, Saturnalia, translated by Percival Vaughan Davies, New York: Columbia University Press.

Madigan, Brian, 2012, The Ceremonial Sculptures of the Roman Gods, Leiden: Brill.

Maëlle, Le Gall, 2013, Monsters: from monstrosity to humanity in Ilka Schönbein’s work, Bachelor’s Thesis: Turku University.

“Magija finske predstave Odlazak,” 2014, article and imagery concerning the production of Lähtöposted on the Bosnian website Fashion.Beauty.Love:

Magill, Mary Tucker, 1882, Pantomimes, Boston: Cushing.

Magri, Gennaro, 1779, Trattato teorico-prattico di ballo, Vol. 1, Naples: Orsini. 

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Maindron, Ernest, 1900, Marionnettes et guignols. Les poupées agissantes et parlantes à travers les ages, Paris: Juven.

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Majevskis, Valdis, 2022, Email Correspondence from August 21 to November 23, with attachments that include transcriptions and translations from Latvian of interviews with Roberts Ligers in Liesma 1/1 January 1967, for a website sponsored by the Gulbene Library in 2005, the scenario for the pantomime Ideja (The Idea) (1960), a transcription and translation of the scenario from the Latvian, video links, and photographs of the production of Ideja in 1963.

Malalas, John, 1831, Ioannis Malalae Chronographia, Bonn: Weber.

_____, 1986, The Chronicle of John Malalas, translated by Elizabeth Jeffreys, Michael Jeffreys, Roger Scott, and Brian Croke, Melbourne: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies.

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Malnig, Julie, 2012, “Exotica and Ethereality: The Solo Art of Maud Allan,” in Claudia Gitelman and Barbara Palfy (eds.), On Stage Alone: Soloists and the Modern Dance Canon, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 119-140. 

Mansuelli, Guido Achille, 1990 [1958], “Die Villen der römischen Welt,”Fridolin Reutti (ed.), Die römische Villa, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchhandlung,

Marcellinus Comes, 1894, “Marcellini Comitis Chronicon (Mommsen, Chronica MinoraII, 1894),” web page of the Latin Library website.

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Margueritte, Paul, 1882, Pierrot assassin de sa femme: pantomime, Paris: Schmidt. 

_____, 1925, Le printemps tourmenté, Paris: Flammarion.

Margueritte, Paul and Victor Margueritte, 1910, Nos tréteaux; charades de Victor Margueritte; pantomimes de Paul Margueritte, Paris: Les Bibliophiles fantaisistes.

Marks, Martin Miller, 1997, Music and the Silent Film: Contexts and Case Studies, 1895-1924, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marmontel, Jean-Francois, 1819, Œuvres completes de Marmontel, Vol. 4, Part 1, Paris: Belin. 

Marranca, Bonnie, 1977, Peter Handke’s My Foot My Tutor: Aspects of Modernism,” Michigan Quarterly Review, 16, 3, 272-279.

Marsh, Carolyn and Rebecca Harris-Warrick, 2005, “The French Connection,” in Rebecca Harris-Warrick and Bruce Alan Brown (eds.), The Grotesque Dancer on the Eighteenth~Century Stage: Gennaro Magri and His World, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 173-198.

Martial, 1921, Epigrams, Notes by Mitchell S. Buck, New York: Privately Printed.

Martin, Diana Damian, 2012, “London International Mime Festival,” Exeunt Magazine (6 January), 1-4, online

Martinez, Ariane, 2021,  Contorsion, Histoire de la souplesse extrême en Occident, XIXe-XXIe siècles, Paris: La Société d’histoire du théâtre, le Centre National des Arts du Cirque, la Chaire ICiMA.

_____,2008a, La pantomime, théâtre en mineur 1880-1945, Paris: Presses Sorbonne nouvelles.

_____, 2008b, “Jeux de mains. Le rôle des mimes dans l’Empreinte ou La main rouge(1908) et La Main(1909),” 1895, Mille huit cent quatre-vingt-quinze 56, 133-147, posted online 1 December 2011, URL:; DOI: 10.4000/1895.4066.

_____, 2020, “Pantomime and best wishes” and “Revisions to the Pantomime History,” email correspondence between Martinez and Toepfer, with Martinez making reference to documents and notes she made of files in the Bibliotheque Nationale de France, 13 and 18 January 2020. 

Martynov, Valentin, 2010, “Пантомима,” excerpts from a film documentary on Modris Tenisons, posted on Martynov’s YouTube channel: Валерий Мартынов.

______, 2014, “Yченик Модриса Тенисона,” excerpts from a film documentary on Modris Tenisons, posted on Martynov’s YouTube channel: Валерий Мартынов.

Mason, James Frederick, 1912, The Melodrama in France from the Revolution to the Beginning of Romantic Drama, 1791-1830, Baltimore: Furst.

Massinger, Philip, 1813, The Plays of Philip Massinger, Vol. 2, London: Nicol. 

Matile, Heinz, 2016, “Albert Steffens Begegnung mit Elsa Carlberg,” on the web page devoted to Albert Steffen @ 

Matsuda Film Productions, 2003, Japanese Film History Studies: Recalling the Treasures of Japanese Cinema, edited by Friends of Silent Film Association, Tokyo: Urban Connections.

Matthews, Kenneth, 1957, Cities in the Sand. Leptis Magna and Sabratha in Roman Africa, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Matule, Zane, 2009, Performance Latvijā / Performance art in Latvia 1963–2009, Riga: Neptuns.

Mauke, Wilhelm, 1918, Die letzte Maske, Vienna: Universal Edition.

Maxwell, Jaclyn, 2006, Christianization and Communication in Late Antiquity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mawer, Irene, 1925, The Dance of Words, London: Dent.

_____, 1932, The Art of Mime, Its History and Technique in Education and the Theatre, London: Methuen.

Mayeur, Ingrid, 2009, “Un apport belge à la pantomime fin-de-siècle. Pierrot macabre de Théodore Hannon (1886),” in Arnaud Rykner (ed.), Pantomime et théâtre du corps, Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 119-128. 

MB Adaptors Archive, 2007-2013, Videos of MB Adaptors productions posted on the Margolisbrown YouTube channel.

McCaw, Dick, 2007, “Claire Heggen goes fishing,” in John Keefe and Simon Murray (eds.), Physical Theatre: A Critical Reader, New York: Routledge, 9-16.

McCormick, John, 1993, Popular Theatres of Nineteenth Century France, New York: Routledge.

McGinn, Thomas A. J., 1998, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Meffre, Liliane, 2002, Carl Einstein, 1885-1940: itinéraires d’une pensée moderne, Paris: Presses de la Université Paris-Sorbonne.

Mehl, Dieter, 2011 [1964], The Elizabethan Dumb Show: The History of a Dramatic Convention, New York: Routledge [1965 translation by the author of his book Die Pantomime im Drama der Shakespearezeit]. 

Meier, Mischa, 2009, Anastasios I: die Entstehung des Byzantinischen Reiches, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

Meinel, Ruediger, 1980, Das Odeion: Untersuchungen an überdachten antiken Theatergebäuden, Frankfurt am Main: Lang. 

Memoires pour servir a l’histoire des spectacles de la foire par un acteur forain, 1743, 2 vols., Paris: Briasson.

Menestrier, Claude-Francois, 1682, Des Ballets anciens et modernes selon les règles du theatre, Paris: Guignard. 

Mennen, Inge, 2011, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284, Leiden: Brill.

Merkelbach, Reinhold, 1998, Mithras. Ein persisch-römischer Mysterienkult, Wiesbaden: Albus.

Mesk, Josef, 1909, “Des Aelius Aristides verlorene Rede gegen die Tänzer,” Wiener Studien 29, 59-74.

Met Performance CID: 45470, 2018, Digital Listing of Metropolitan Opera Programs at archives,

Metastasio, Pietro, 1766 [1731], Demophoon, ein musicalisches Schau-Spiel, bilingual Italian and German edition, with uncredited translation, Munich: Thuille.

_____, 1767, The Works of Metastasio, Vol. 2, translated by John Hoole, London: Davies. 

Meuer, Petra, 2007, Theatrale Räume: theaterästhetische Entwürfe in Stücken von Werner Schwab, Elfriede Jelinek und Peter Handke, Berlin: LIT.

Meyendorf, Rona, 2008, “Der grosse alte Mann des Gehörlosentheater,” transcription of an interview with Kurt Eisenblätter fora television program broadcast on 12 January 2008, broadcast number 1382, on the program Sehen statt Hören, a television channel designed for deaf people, published 30 August 2008 in the weekly newsletter, pdf online@

“Meyerhold,” 2008, A collection of texts concerning Vsevolod Meyerhold’s theory of biomechanics, including his descripition of the method, translated by Evdokija Zafirovska at

Meylen, Pierre, 1982 [1970], Honegger, son oeuvre et son message, Lausanne: l’áge d’h́omme.

Mielsch, Harald, 2001, Römische Wandmalerei, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Thiess. 

Miholová, Kateřina, 2007, Král Ubu–Jarry & Grossman & Fára–Divadlo Na zábradlí 1964-1968, Prague: Kant.

Milwaukee Public Theatre, 2017, “A Short History (the first 42 years) of the Milwaulee Public Theatre,” posted on the website for the Milwaukee Public Theatre:

Misler, Nicoletta, 1999, “Dressing Up and Dressing Down: The Body of the Avant-Garde,” in John Bowlt and Matthew Drutt (eds.), Amazons of the Avant-Garde, New York: Guggenheim Museum, 95-107.

_____, 2017, The Russian Art of Movement 1920-1930, Turin: Allemandi.

Molloy, Margaret, 1996, Libanius and the Dancers, Hildescheim: Olms.

Mon ami Pierrot, 1917, edited by Kendall Banning, Chicago: Brothers of the Book.

Monnet, Jean, 1900, Mémoires de Jean Monnet, directeur du Théâtre de la Foire, Paris: Louis-Michaud.

Moore, Lillian, 1961, New York’s First Ballet Season 1792, New York: New York Public Library.

Morgan, Lady, 1821, Italy, Vol. 1, London: Colburn.

Morin, Louis, 2009 [1894], Pierre pornographe, published on the website Théâtre d’ombres et silhouettes.

Morrow, Kathleen, 1985, Greek Footwear and the Dating of Sculpture, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 

Mościcki, Tomasz, 2016 [2010], “Feliks Parnell,” essay on the website

Mossoux-Bonté, 2008-2018, Videos of performances by the Mossoux-Bonté Company posted on the moussouxbonte, Théâtre de Châtillon, La Passerelle scène nationale YouTube channels.

Mouchet, Louis, 1994, La constellation Jodorowsky, Geneva: Les Films Grain de Sable, excerpt on IMDB database showing Marcel Marceau discussing Jodorowsky at

Mountford, Margaret, 2012, Documentary Papyri from Roman and Byzantine Oxyrhynchus, Doctoral Dissertation: University College London.

Mulhallen, Jacqueline, 2010, The Theatre of Shelley, Cambridge: Open Book. 

_____, 2014, “Shelley, Viganò, and Choreodramma,” in Julia Swindells and David Francis Taylor, The Oxford Handbook of Georgian Theatre 1737-1832, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 498-513. 

Nagy, Michal, 2016, Výrazové prostředky souboru Tichá Opera na příkladu inscenace Stabat Mater, Bachelor’s Thesis: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci.

Najac, Raoul de, 1887, Petit traité de pantomime à l’usage des gens du monde, Paris: Hennuyer.

_____, 1888, Les exploits d’un arlequin: autobiographie d’un mime, Paris: Hennuyer. 

Nickel, Frank, 1997, Pädagogik der Pantomime: die Mehrperspektivität eines Phänomens, Weinheim: Beltz.

Nicks, Fiona, 1998, The Reign of Anastasius I, 491-518, Doctoral Thesis: St. Hilda’s College, Oxford University.

Nilsson, Martin P., 1906, Griechische Feste von religiöser Bedeutung, Leipzig: Teubner. 

Nio, Kalle, 2018, Links to and images of performances, installations, and exhibitions by Kalle Nio on his website:

Norris, Herbert, 1924, Ancient European Costume and Fashion, Vol. 1, London: Dent.

Norton, Leslie, 2004, Leonid Massine and the 20thCentury Ballet, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. 

Norton, Thomas and Thomas Sackville, 1883, Gorboduc or Ferrex and Porrrex, a Tragedy, edited by L. Toulmin Smith, Heilbronn: Henninger.

Noverre, Jean-Georges, 1760, Lettres sur la danse, Lyon: Delaroche.

_____, 1774, Introduction au Ballet des Horaces ou Petite Réponse aux grandes lettres du Sr. Angiolini, Milan: unidentified publisher.

Nuñez, Gabriele Betancourt, 2006, “Tanzphotographien von Minya Diez-Dührkoop,” in Rüdiger Joppien (ed.), Entfesselt: Expressionismus in Hamburg um 1920, Hamburg: Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, 56-63.

Nye, Edward, 2015, “The Romantic Myth of Jean-Gaspard Deburau,” Nineteenth-Century French Studies 44, 1-2, 46-64. 

_____, 2016, “The Pantomime Repertoire of the Théâtre des Funambules,” Nineteenth Century Theatre and Film 43, 1, 3-20.

Oberhuber, Andrea, 2015, “Secrets de Lulu: Félicien Champsaur et la conception du roman ‘moderniste’,” Les Lettres Romanes 69, 3-4, 365-381.

O’Brien, John, 2004, Harlequin Britain: Pantomime and Entertainment, 1690-1760, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

O’Keefe, John, 1785, A Short Account of the New Pantomime Called Omai, or, a Trip around the World, London: Cadell.

Okon Fuoko—see me, 2015, Video trailer for the Alpo Aaltokoski theatrical production of Okon Fuoko, posted on Vimeo.

Oldenburg Landesbibliothek, 1911, Advertisement for Rita Sacchetto program with the opera Flotte Bursche, Oldenburg: Grossherzogliches Theater.

Omnibus Archive, 2010-2015, Videos of the Montreal mime company Omnibus le corps du théâtre posted on the YouTube channels TheatreEspaceLibre and Mime Omnibus. 

Onesti, Stefania, 2014, Dietro la traccia de’ gran maestri. Prassi e poetica del ballo pantomimo italiano negli ultimi quarant’anni del Settecento, 2 vols., Doctoral Dissertation: University of Padua (online at Paduaresearch). 

Orgel, Stephen, 1975, The Illusion of Power, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Orinska, Simona, 2011 [2008], “Butoh in Latvia,” documentary film directed by Jānis Redlihs and M. Smildziņa posted on the Simona Orinska YouTube channel.

_____, 2014, “Zime,” video document of performance by Simona Orinska posted on the Hugues le comoux YouTube channel.

_____, 2015, “News,” web page on the Simona Orsinska website

Orlando Consort, 2015, “Voices Appeared,” webpage on the The Orlando Consort website compiling information and reviews about the ensembles singing accompaniment for showings of the film Le passion de Jeanne d’Arc

Ou, Hsin-yun. 2008, “The Chinese Festival and Eighteenth-Century London Audience,” Wenshan Review: Literature and Culture 2.1, 31-52.

Oulton, Walley Chamberlain, 1796, The History of the Theatres of London:containing an annual register of all the new and revived tragedies, comedies, operas, farces, pantomines, &c. that have been performed at the theaters-royal, in London, from the year 1771 to 1795, Vol. 2, London: Martin and Bain.

“Pantomime in Paris,” 1897, MacMillan’s Magazine 75, 379-386.

Paris, Rita, 1980, “Fregio con thiasos Dionisiaco (inv. N. 106509 = 125586),” in Antonio Giuliano (ed.), Museo Nazionale Romano, Le ScultureI, 2, Rome: De Luca, 192-195.

Parlasca, Klaus, 1959, Die römischen Mosaiken in Deutschland, Berlin: De Gruyter.

Parnell, David Alan, 2014, “Spectacle and Sport in Constantinople in the Sixth Century CE,” in Paul Christesen and Donald G. Kyle (eds.), A Companion to Sport and Spectacle in Greek and Roman Antiquity, Oxford: Blackwell.

Pasch, Johann, 1707, Johann Paschens Beschreibung wahrer Tanzkunst, Frankfurt: Michahelles and Adolph.

Pearson, Roberta, 1992, Eloquent Gestures: The Transformation of Performance Style in the Griffith Biograph Films, Berkeley: University of California Press.

“Performance, not results,” 2014, blog post on Félicia Mallet on the website Photoseed.

Pericaud, Louis, 1897, Le théâtre des funambules, ses mimes, ses acteurs, et ses pantomimes, Paris: Sapin.

Peroux, Joseph Nicholas, 1809, Pantomimische Stellungen von Henriette Hendel, Frankfurt: Perroux.

Peschke, Anna, 2011, “Häutungsprozesse. Ausgangsfragen eines Inszenierungsprojektes,” double 2, 23, [Sex and the Puppet], 12.

_____, 2012, Video scenes from Ilsas Garten, posted on the Anna Peschke Vimeo channel.

_____, 2013a, Video excerpts from Titania tanzt für einen Esel, posted on the Anna Peschke Vimeo channel.

_____, 2013b, Video of Eselei, posted on the Anna Peschke Vimeo channel. 

Peters, Julie Stone, 2000, Theatre of the Book, 1480–1880: Print, Text, and Performance in Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Petracchi, Angelo, 1818, Analisi del balla di Vigano intitolato Mirra, Milano: Bettoni.

Phillpotts, Bertha, 1920, The Elder Edda and Ancient Scandinavian Drama, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Phillpotts, J. Surtees and C. S. Jeram, 1877, Easy Selections Adapted from Xenophon, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Philostratus, 1912, Life of Apollonius, translated by F.C. Conybeare, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

_____, 1931, Philostratus the Elder, Imagines. Philostratus the Younger, Imagines. Callistratus, Descriptions, translated by Arthur Fairbanks, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Piagnol, André and Robert Laurent-Vibert, 1912, Recherches archéologiques à Ammaedara (Haidra), Rome: Imprimerie Cuggiani.

Pianopianissimo, 2002, webpage documenting the Pianopianissimo Musiktheater Ensemble production of Das Mirakel in 2002,

Piccirillo, Michele, 1993, The Mosaics of Jordan, Amman: American Center of Oriental Research.

Piening, Heinrich, 2013, “Examination Report: The Polychromy of the Arch of Titus Menorah Relief,” Images 6: 26–29. 

Pierrot in Turquoise, 2015 [1970], “David Bowie—Threepenny Pierrot #Pangea’s People,” video scenes from the Lindsay Kemp-David Bowie pantomime Pierrot in Turquoise, posted by the makecelebhistory YouTube channel. 

Piña, Juan Andrés, 1973, “Educacion Seximental,” Mensaje 221, 390-391.

_____, 2014, Historia del teatro en Chile 1941-1990, Santiago: Taurus.

Pinok et Matho, 1976, Dynamique de la creation: Le mot et l’expression corporelle, Paris: Vrin.

_____, 2016, Une saga du mime: des origins aux années 1970, Paris: Riveneuve.

Pinthus, Kurt (ed.), 1983 [1913], Das Kinobuch, Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch.

Pirandello, Luigi, 1924, La salamandra, typescript of the 1924 pantomime posted on the website Citta degli Archivi @

Piris, Paul, 2014, “The Co-Presence and Ontological Ambiguity of the Puppet,” in Dassia N. Posner, Claudia Orenstein, and John Bell (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Puppetry and Material Performance, London: Routledge, 30-42.

Pixerécourt, Guilbert, 1841, Théâtre choisi de Pixerécourt, introduced by Charles Nodier, Paris: Tresse. 

Plato, 1967, Laws. Books 7-12, translated by R. G. Bury, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

Plicková, Karolina, 2012, Pantomima Alfreda Jarryho, Diploma Thesis: University of Prague. 

Pliny the Elder, 1855, The Natural History, translated by John Bostock, London: Taylor and Francis.

Pliny the Younger, 1915, Pliny the Letters, translated by William Melmoth, revised by W. M. L. Hutchinson, Vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Plon, Eugène, 1874, Thorvaldsen: His Life and Works, London: Bentley.

Plutarch, 1874, Plutarch’s Morals, Vol. 1, corrected and revised by William Goodwin, Boston: Little, Brown. 

_____, 1961, Moralia, Volume IX, Table-Talk, Books 7-9. Dialogue on Love, translated by Edwin L. Minar Jr., F. H. Sandbach, and W. C. Helmbold, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Poesio, Giannandrea, 1998, “Viganò, the Coreodramma and the Language of Gesture,” Historical Dance [Dolmetsch Historical Dance Society] 3, 5, 3-8.

Poletti, Michel, 2011, Marionette al portale sud, Lugano: Books on Demand.

Pollux, Julius, 1824, Onomasticon, edited by Guilielmus Dindorfius, Leipzig: Kuehn. 

Polti, Georges, 1921 [1895], The Thirty-Six Dramatic Situations, translated by Lucille Ray, Franklin, Ohio: Reeve.

Popi ja Huhuu Archive, 1990, 1992, 2003, 2016, Videos related to performances of the pantomime Pop ja Huhuu in 1975, 2003, and 2016, Lennud: Lavakunstikooli VII lend (1972-1976)(1992); Tähe valgus: Urmas Kibuspuu (1990); Siin ja praegu: Lembit Peterson (1998); Pop ja Huhuu (2003); OP: 559 (2016), Estonian Broadcast Archives online

Povlsen, Karen Klitgaard, 2011, “Salon a la Coppet at Sophienholm,” web page on the website The History of Nordic Women’s Literature

Pontrandolfo, Angela and Agnès Rouveret, 1992, Le tombe dipinte di Paestum, Modena: Panini.

Posner, Dassia, 2009, “A Theatrical Zigzag: Doctor Daperttuto, Colombine’s Veil, and the Grotesque,” Slavic and Eastern European Performance 29, 3, 43-57.

_____, 2016, The Director’s Prism: E. T. A. Hoffmann and the Russian Theatrical Avant-Garde, Evanston: Northwestern University Press.

Posselt, Christoph, 2015, “Der Clown im Management,” in Richard Wiehe (ed.), Über den Clown: Künstlerische und theoretische Perspektiven, Bielefeld: transcript.

Potter, Lois, 2002, Shakespeare in Performance: Othello, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Potter, Nicole, 2011, “Let’s Get Physical: What’s Happening Now?” American Theatre (January issue), online 

Poursat, Jean-Claude, 1968, “Les représentations de danse armée dans la céramique attique,” Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, 92, 2, 550-615.

Procès-Verbal de la Convention Nationale, 1792, Paris: De la imprimerie Nationale.

Procopius, 1927, The Secret History, translated by Richard Atwater, New York: Covici.

_____, 1935, The Secret History, translated by Henry Bronson Dewing, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

_____, 1966, Secret History, translated by G. A. Williamson, London: Penguin.

Prod’homme, J. G., 1917, “Gluck’s French Collaborators,” The Musical Quarterly 3, 2, 249-271.

Programe de la Pucelle d’Orléans, ou le fameux siege,pantomime héroïque, 1786, unknown place or publisher, probably government printing press.

Prost, Brigitte, 2012, “Il était une fois des masques et des marionnettes. Le cas du Roi Grenouilled’Ilka Schönbein,” Revue d’Histoire du Théâtre 253, 157-164.

Prudhommeau, Germaine, 1965-1966, La danse grecque antique, 2 vols., Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. 

Prunières, Henry, 1921, “Salvatore Viganò,”Revue musicale 3, 2, 71–94

Puchner, Walter, 2002, “Acting in the Byzantine Theatre: Evidence and Problems,” in Pat Easterling and Edith Hall, Greek and Roman Actors, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 304-326.

Pudovkin, Vselevod, 1960 [1934], Film Technique and Film Acting, New York: Grove.

Purkis, Charlotte, 2011, “Movement, Poetry and Dionysian Modernism: Irene Mawer’s Experiments with ‘Dance Words,’” in Aida Ailamazian, Julia Idlis, Irina Sirotkina and Tatiana Venediktova (eds.), Free Verse and Free Dance: Embodied Sense in Motion, Papers of the international conference organized by the Faculty of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Faculty of Philology, of the Moscow State University, 1-3 October 2010, 70-80.

Quintilian, 1922, The Institutio Oratoria of Quintilian, translated by Harold Edgeworth Butler, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Radke-Stegh, Marlis, 1978, Der Theatervorhang: Ursprung, Geschichte, Funktion, Meisenheim am Glan: Hain.

Rahill, Frank, 1967, The World of Melodrama, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. 

Raimondi, Ezio (ed.), 1984, Il Sogno del coreodramma: Salvatore Viganò, poeta muto, Bologna: Mulino. 

Ralph, James, 1973 [1728], TheTouch-Stone: or, Historical, Critical, Political, Philosophical, and Theological Essays on the Reigning Diversions of the Town, New York: Garland. 

Rantala, Jussi, 2013, Ludi Saeculares of Septimius Severus as a Manifestation of the Golden Age, Tampere: Tampere University Press. 

Raymond, Emanuelle, 2013, “Gaius Cornelius Gallus,” in Thea S. Thorsen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Latin Love Elegy, 59-67.

Rebane, Aavo, 2018, Live conversation with Heili Einasto regarding the Pantomiimi- ja Plastikastuudio. 

Rebjekow, Jean-Christoph, 1991, “Diderot et la pantomime: vers une nouveau ‘genre’ musical,” Francofonia 19, 61-73.

Reich, Hermann, 1903, Der Mimus, 3 vols., Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung. 

Reid, Peter, 1991, The Complete Works of Rather of Verona, translated by Peter Reid, Binghamton: Medieval & Renaissance Texts and Studies.

Reijn, Rob van, 2000, Voetlicht en vetpotten. Roman over Jan van Well in en om de schouwburg. Een kroniek van Amsterdam 1772-1818, Schoorl: Conserve.

Reinach, Salomon, 1897-1913, Répertoire de la statuaire grecque et romaine, 4 vols., Paris: Leroux. 

Reinking, Wilhelm, 1979, Spiel und Form, Hamburg: Christians.

Reiske, Johann Jacob (ed.), 1829, Constantini Porphyrogeniti imperatoris de ceremoniis aulae byzantinae libri duo, Vol. 1, Bonn: Weber. 

Remann, Micky, 2007, “Paul Scheerbart – Prä-psychedelisches Perpetuum Mobile der architektur-literarischen Avantgarde,” video lecture produced by Entheovision 4-Medienprojekt PSI-TV, posted on

Rémy, Tristan, 1954, Jean-Gaspard Deburau. Paris: L’Arche.

_____, 1964, Georges Wague: le mime de la belle époque, Paris: Girard.

Ribbeck, Otto, 1875, Die römische Tragödie im Zeitalter der Republik, Leipzig: Teubner.

Riccoboni, François, 1750, L’Art du théâtre, Paris: Simon.

Richards, Jeffrey, 2015, The Golden Age of Pantomime: Slapstick, Spectacle and Subversion in Victorian England, London: Tauris.

Richepin, Jean, 1886, Braves gens, roman parisiene, Paris: Dreyfous.

_____, 1898, Contes de la décadence romaine, Paris: Fasquelle.

Rīgas Pantomīma, 2013, web page biography of Robert Ligers and history of the Rīgas Pantomīma ensemble, on the website for Rīgas Pantomīma:

Ritorno, Carlo, 1838, Commentarii della vita e delle opere coredrammatiche di Salvatore Viganò, Milan: Redaelli.

Robert, Louis, 1930, “Pantomimen im griechischen Orient,” Hermes 65, 106-22.

Robert, Yann, 2015, “Mercier’s Revolutionary Theater: Reimagining Pantomime, the Aesthetic of the Unfinished, and the Politics of the Stage,” Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture 44, 185-206.

Roberto, Umberto, 2010, “The Circus Factions and the Death of the Tyrant: John of Antioch and the Fate of the Emperor Phocas,” in Falko Daim and Jörg Drauschke (eds.), Byzanz –das Römerreich im Mittelalter Teil 1, Welt der Ideen, Welt der Dinge, Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches ZentralmuseumForschungsinstitut für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, 55-77.

Robinson, Jacqueline, 1990, L’aventure de la danse modern en France (1920-1970), Clamecy: Bougé.

Rodina, Ieva, 2015, “Dailes teātra aktiermākslas principi un modernisms (20. gs. 20.–30. gadi): Felicitas Ertneres ieguldījums kustību valodas izstrādē,” Kultūras krustpunkti 7, 186-193. 

Roueche, Charlotte, 1993, Performers and Partisans at Aphrodisias in the Roman and Late Roman Periods: A Study Based on Inscriptions from the Current Excavations at Aphrodisias in Caria, London: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.

Rókás, László, 2009, “Nekrolog: Pályám emlékezete Regős Pál (1926-2009),” Ellenfény Online (July 20),

Rolfe, Bari (ed.), 1979, Mimes on Miming, Los Angeles: Panjandrum Books.

Rommel, Otto, 1952, Die Alt-Wiener Volkskomödie. Ihre Geschichte vom barocken Welt-Theater bis zum Tode Nestroys, Vienna: Schroll.

Rosenberg, Marvin, 1992, The Masks of Hamlet, London: Associated University Presses.

Roswitha, 1923, The Plays of Roswitha, translated by Christopher St. John, London: Chatto and Windus.

Roueché, Charlotte, 1993, Performers and Partisans at Aphrodisias in the Roman and Late Roman Periods, Leeds: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.

_____, 2009, “A World Full of Stories,” in P. Rousseau and M. Papoutsakis (eds.), Transformations of Late Antiquity: Essays for Peter Brown, Vol. 2, Farnham: Ashgate, 177-186. 

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_____, 2006, Tragiczne gry: monografia dokumentacyjna ostatniego choreodramu pantomimicznego Henryka Tomaszewskiego, Zielona Góra: Oficyna Wydawnicza Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego

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_____, 1985, Pierrots on the Stage of Desire: Nineteenth-Century French Literary Artists and the Comic Pantomime, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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Table of Contents

The Extinction of the Pantomimic Literary Imagination: Desire (2019)

Pantomime: The History and Metamorphosis of a Theatrical Ideology: Table of Contents

PDF version of the entire book.

Desire (2019)

Within the postmodern aesthetic, pantomime functions to bestow fluidity or uncertainty of identity to performance, so that performance itself signifies unstable or dynamic relationships between text and action, speech and bodily gesture, music and sound, performer and spectator, the imaginary and the real, the solitary self and the communal persona, or technology and “humanness.” These fluidities of identity become equivalent, at least theoretically, to an enhanced state of freedom, of release from the constraining, ideologically formed barriers or “limits” defining identities. But fluidity of identity in relation to the concept of “performance” perhaps inevitably requires that postmodern performance expand its power through its ability to intensify fluidity of sexual identity and desire. But with this goal in mind, pantomime is merely doing what it already had done for centuries during the Roman Empire, revealing the “metamorphosis” of the body when neither speech nor dance is able to prevent the spectator from seeing it. 

            A good example of a postmodern pantomime of fluid sexual identity is Iha, which in Estonian means Desire or Craving or Lust, a performance piece by an undergraduate student in the Choreography Program of Tallinn University, Keithy Kuuspu (b. 1994). Desire was Kuuspu’s graduation piece. It had its premiere in April 2019 at the Kanuti Gildi Saal in the Old Town district of Tallinn. The Kanuti Guild Hall operates primarily as a space for experimental forms of performance, but for Desire, Kuuspu and her colleagues cleaned out several storage rooms in the cellar of the building and shaped the performance in relation to these spaces made available to them. The piece involves seven performers, all women, and Kuuspu inserts herself into the performance at various moments. Lasting about an hour, Desire depicts erotic and domestic interactions between women living together, although none of the performers embody “characters” or named identities: the point of performance is to show tropes of interaction that are not specific to particular motives or personalities; they are specific to female-to-female desires. The relation of the performance to its audience is dynamic insofar as spectators move from one site or room of performance to another, but not together. However, the audience is together for the first and last scenes. The first scene takes place at the entrance to the cellar, with the audience standing and watching from the lobby of the Kanuti Guild Hall. The performance begins with a muscular woman (Agnes Ihoma) slowly gyrating and caressing herself behind a transparent plastic screen, as if she is looking at herself in a mirror and trying to see how she looks when she signifies erotic desire or provokes it. Soon the audience hears the recorded sound of a woman gasping or panting, as if she is pleasuring herself. From out of the audience, the other women in the ensemble, wearing shiny scarlet pants and black sweaters or shiny scarlet robes, approach the transparent mirror-wall or another transparent mirror-wall perpendicular to the one before the muscular woman. One dark-haired woman in a scarlet robe, pressing against the transparent sheet, reproduces the movements made by the muscular woman as she presses herself against the transparency. Other women slowly undulate before the perpendicular transparency. Then all the women converge on the mirror-wall separating them from the muscular woman. The woman in the scarlet robe begins to touch the muscular woman’s image in a manner that is independent of the muscular woman’s movement. This distinction inspires the other women to retrieve damp cloths from a pail of water and begin scrubbing the transparent screen, as if to wash away the “invisible” barrier between them and the muscular woman. They kneel down while the muscular woman stands tall, with her arms upraised, like a priestess before her acolytes. The whole scene appears to dramatize the erotic fantasy the muscular woman devises while gazing at her own image. She imagines herself wanting and desired by more than one woman; even if all the women she imagines wear variants of the same “uniform,” one woman is not “enough” to complete her desire. A group or community of women is necessary for the fulfillment of rapturous self-reflection. When the fantasy women tear down the transparency, they pass by the muscular woman and descend into the cellar rooms. The muscular woman gazes at the audience before she turns and leads the audience into the cellar.

             The audience passes through a dark, narrow corridor, against the walls of which some of the women, illuminated expressionistically by soft-glowing copper light, writhe and pant, as if performing a strange, solitary exercise that they share with the public without actually being a group. At the end of the corridor is a sunken space designed to resemble a living room bathed in a flaming orange light. The audience can move through the scene as it plays and view the action from a staircase on the other side of the room. A television set is on, but it displays only a blizzard of electronic “snow.” After sitting on the couch watching the television set, the muscular woman and another woman (Dana Lorén Warres) engage in a kind of slow ritual of putting on and removing sweaters, of putting sweaters on each other, of removing their sweaters, of trying to bind each other within the same sweater, of pulling down each other’s pants. With the sweaters discarded, they fondle each other on the couch. Kuuspu enters, fixes herself a drink, sits on the couch, and stares at the television set. The muscular woman and her partner tease each other with a sweater as they amble, staring into each other’s eyes, up the staircase and into a corner of it, where they nuzzle each other. They then return to the positions they assumed when they began the piece and perform the scene over again, as if it is a loop. All scenes in Desire occur as loops to allow all portions of the audience to see all scenes but not together or in the same order. The spectator chooses which room to enter, but all scenes happen at the same time; the “looping” of the scenes enables the spectator to see different things happening at once. 

            In another room, two women in black Spandex shorts and tank tops (Silvia-Kairet Põld and Amanda Hermiine Künnapas) perform actions that apparently occur in a public restroom. A pillar in the center of the room supports two wash basins and mirrors, but these point in opposite directions, one bathed in green light, the other in blue light. One woman slowly approaches the green basin, the other the blue basin. They undulate and caress themselves before the mirrors, then suddenly dart away and “discover” each other in the shadows. They run in opposite circles around the entire space, as if trying to avoid and attract each other at the same time. One woman stops to splash and refresh herself at the blue basin. The other woman slips behind her and makes caressive movements, which they both observe in the mirror. They move away from the basin and start embracing in the shadows. But they emerge from the shadows performing combative actions, with both women performing both stalking and fleeing strides until one of the women abruptly halts and the other woman studies her closely, making caressive gestures. The two women begin dancing together in a sexual, voluptuous manner. Kuuspu enters the scene and pours something from a jar into the “blue” basin. She tries to insert herself into the dance, but this leads to conflict, with the two dancers uncertain who should “possess” Kuuspu or if Kuuspu should even be in the dance. An ambiguous configuration of movements makes unclear if the dancers expel Kuuspu from their dance or Kuuspu ejects herself from the dance. But with Kuuspu gone, the dancers exchange desiring glances at each other, touch hands, and retreat slowly and separately into the shadows. The scene begins again for another portion of the audience that had watched another scene in another room.

            A third scene takes place in a room dressed to resemble a small kitchen. Two young women, dressed in shiny scarlet pants and black sweaters, inhabit the space. Pink tones pervade the scene: pink coffee cups, pink spoons, a pink clock, a chandelier made out of dangling pink gloves, even the lighting is pinkish. Woman A (Kristiina Heinmets) does something at a stove in a dark corner of the room while Woman B (Alma Nedzelskyte) stands up from a chair to watch her. When Woman A returns from the stove and goes to a cupboard on the other side of the room, Woman B moves a kitchen utensil on a wall from one peg to another, and when Woman A returns from the cupboard, she returns the kitchen utensil to its original peg, while Woman B adjusts the item that Woman A had handled at the cupboard. Woman A and Woman B face each other with Woman A holding a pink plastic spoon; when Woman B does not accept the spoon, Woman A lets it drop to the floor. Variations of this sequence of actions occur three more times, once in slow motion, until Woman B catches the spoon. Woman B goes to the stove and retrieves a pot of coffee, while Woman A adjusts the pink wall clock. But Woman A blocks Woman B from returning to her chair until Woman B dodges her and they both sit down, side by side, and begin to assume different sitting poses without looking at each other. Then they swivel and face each other. Woman A places both hands on Woman B’s hips, but Woman B flings her hands away. They repeat this swivel-touch-fling movement several times while Kuuspu, holding a pink goblet, enters, opens the refrigerator and peers into it before bending to pick up plastic spoons dropped on the floor. Kuuspu’s “intervention” disrupts the game playing of the two women. Woman A goes to the stove, while Woman B resets the pink clock, Kuuspu tidies pink objects on the little tea table. She leaves the scene; Woman A and Woman B then ceremoniously stand and pour water from a pitcher into each other’s teacups and sit sipping from the cups until Woman B reaches for a cigarette, which she lights with a match. Woman A draws a cigarette from the same pink pack and awaits a light from Woman B. When Woman B notices Woman A awaiting the light, she leans toward her and lights her cigarette by touching it with her own cigarette, as if the women kiss each other with their cigarettes. They smoke languorously for a moment, then simultaneously put out their cigarettes. They stand and embrace; they walk to the stove, from which Woman A withdraws a pan. She holds the pan ceremoniously before dumping the contents on the floor, spaghetti apparently. So the scene ends and begins again for another section of the audience. 

            The final scene occurs after all sections of the audience have seen the previous scenes performed simultaneously in different rooms. The entire performance ensemble appears together in the final scene before the entire audience. The action takes place in the same room where the bathroom scene occurred, but now the scene evokes the atmosphere of a nightclub, and the music here as elsewhere in the production is disco-electronica, although no one really dances in the scene. Virtually all of the action revolves around a large pillar in the center of the room; the audience surrounds the performance space, seated against the four walls of the room. A small metal railing, about a foot high, surrounds the pillar and enables performers to stand on it to reach and hang on to fixtures attached to the ceiling. The scene begins with Kuuspu, dressed, as elsewhere, in a black blouse, black pants, and sneakers, treading stealthily through space, scanning the audience for people or opportunities. She draws to her a pair of women in transparent tank tops and Spandex shorts; the women surround Kuuspu, but she slips away and leaves the two women to interact with each other. These women play a kind of game, encircling the pillar, darting and looping around each other, alternating stalking and evading each other, so that it is not clear who desires whom—or rather, the women convey an ambivalence about desiring or being desired. The appearance of another woman in a transparent tank top and shiny red pants complicates this game of ambivalent desire. Three women sneak, wind, and coil around the pillar, flinching when one woman touches the hand of another gliding down the pillar. Further complication ensues when a fourth woman, in transparent black tank top and Spandex shorts, enters the game, with the movements of the women becoming somewhat both predatory and furtive. A fifth woman enters, shadowed by Kuuspu, and the women study her before drawing her into their game. When a sixth woman enters the game, the action becomes very complex, with some women stepping onto the railing around the pillar, where they display themselves voluptuously, while other women gyrate and undulate alone or in pairs or slip into fleeting, unsustained or incomplete embraces. Every time women form pairs, a third woman intrudes to break up the pair and form a new one. Whenever a woman seems drawn to another woman, a third woman distracts her. The women radiate away from the pillar into the shadows and gyrate voluptuously and individually before the audience. But the pillar draws them back and they all step onto the railing and display their bodies, prowl over each other’s bodies until finally they all step down at once to the floor and bend over in a circle around the pillar with each woman resting her head on the buttocks of the woman before her. They simultaneously raise their heads and lower them so that the other cheek of each woman rests on the buttocks of the woman before her. Each woman supplements this gesture with caressive strokes on the thigh or hip of the woman before her. But the body-chain collapses when the women break away to form pairs, three of them. The couples embrace, rather passionately, and perform provocative, gyrating movements within their embraces. Kuuspu re-enters the scene and approaches one couple; immediately this couple ceases to move as they and Kuuspu stare at each other. But when Kuuspu moves on, the couple begins to perform combative movements, as if each is fighting the other to prevent the other from attaching herself to Kuuspu. Yet Kuuspu drifts toward another couple and embraces these two women, starts dancing with them as a trio, until one of the women breaks away or is thrust out, so that Kuuspu is now a couple with the remaining woman. But the woman who left the trio causes the disruption of the other two couples when she tries to insert herself into them. Bodies become entangled and dispersed. A dispersed woman orbits the pillar and encounters Kuuspu and her partner, who thrusts Kuuspu toward the gang or “pack” of other women. One woman “confronts” Kuuspu, and the two stare at each other until they embrace and kiss. The other women form a line behind Kuuspu, with one woman embracing her from behind, leaning her head against Kuuspu’s neck. Each of the women embraces the woman before her and rests her head against the preceding woman’s neck. But this communal, physical unity does not last long: Kuuspu slips away from the chain and wanders off; then the other women separate and each wanders alone out of the space (Kuuspu 2019) [Figure 194]. 

            Desire constructs an impressive postmodern ideology of homoerotic female desire without relying on either speech or dance. Kuuspu fragments her narrative across different performance spaces and in doing so, she fragments her audience, so that the culminating scene in the nightclub does not result from an “objectively” linear progression of actions but from a linear progession of actions shaped by the desire of the spectator, who chooses the order in which to see the scenes. Desire drives the narrative organization of life within the ideology of female homoeroticism. Yet all of the scenes show women disclosing an ambivalent attitude toward the desire for another woman. In the living room, restroom, and kitchen scenes, pairs of women perform actions that alternatively provoke and depress desire, creating an intensifying tension between the women that eventually produces an oppressive stasis, an atmosphere of emotional stagnation. In all of the scenes, each woman uses physical actions alone to signify her desire for another woman but also her ambivalence about desiring the woman before her and her ambivalence about being desireable to the woman before her. But this ambivalence does not arise in relation to homoerotic feeling; it arises in relation to the idea of pairing or couplehood. The scenes in the living room, kitchen, and restroom show pairs of women seemingly trapped within a domestic milieu in which they repetitively perform mundane actions they hope will manifest some measure of vulnerability in which desire might reawaken and enable a desireable “metamorphosis” within the couple. But Kuuspu’s intrusion into all of the scenes implies that such metamorphosis is not internal to couplehood. Desire always deepens or expands in relation to another woman, a third woman, a woman outside or “free” of the realities of the couple. It is not relevant whether this other woman is real or a fantasy: she functions to reveal that desire cannot be contained within a couple; desire invariably includes “someone else.” The opening mirror scene and the corridor scene suggest that erotic desire is both the negation and revelation of one’s aloneness. You look into the mirror and see so many “others” gazing back at you with desire. In the corridor, solitary women pose voluptuously and writhe with masturbatory pleasure, as if the “other” one desires could be any of the shadowy spectators passing through the darkness of the passage to scenes of couplehood. The concluding nightclub scene provides relief from the desire-draining stasis or stability depicted in the domestic scenes. In this scene, women try to make contact with each other, they even try to form pairs, but they cannot become couples: another woman invariably “distracts” a partner or the shadowy Kuuspu appears and inserts herself between a pair. The women are actually closest when they form a chain, with all bodies connected and pressed against each other, as if the desire for any woman entailed desiring all the other women. Yet even this omnivorous desire cannot sustain the communal sharing of bodies: the desire for “more” or some “other,” more powerful body disrupts the chain, and the women disperse, disappear alone into the shadows and out of the space. As a whole, the piece asserts that erotic desire reveals itself most accurately and transparently through physical actions, not speech or dance. These physical actions are largely mundane: gazes and glances, “confrontational” stances, timid or tentative touches, predatory approaches and evasive steps backward, darting toward and flinching away from others, the handing of spoons or cups to another, the putting on or removal of an item of clothing, voluptuous poses and lurid gyrations, uncertain caresses and incomplete embraces. But none of the actions derive from the institutionalized movement vocabularies that define the sequestered studio aesthetics of mime culture and dance. Kuuspu and her ensemble appear to have devised a pantomime aesthetic that derives from their observations of female interactions in life. It is a pantomime aesthetic that arises out of a unique personal, sexual, and subcultural experience. Yet it is this uniqueness of physical experience that accounts for an exciting infusion of freedom into the postmodern performance scene.  

            Some spectators complained that Desire was not dance and that some of the performers did not have “dancer bodies.” They insinuated that Kuuspu had not sufficiently applied what she had learned in classes or in the dance studios. But perhaps these complaints cannot be detached from more subtle objections to the content of the piece, the physical rhetoric of homosexual desire, which perhaps cannot achieve accurate and insightful representation through the idealizing, institutionalized control over the body imposed by dance with its elaborate, step-bound movement vocabularies governed by schools. Homosexual desire apparently “moves” outside of this institutionalization. But in a sense, the performance of female desire as given by Kuuspu’s piece may also be outside of history or outside of the aesthetic “tradition” of performing desire as preserved through academic institutionalization. Kuuspu produced her piece without any knowledge of Estonia’s remarkable and imaginative contributions to pantomime in the decades before she was born. Possibly she conceived Desire without much, if any, knowledge of pantomime in general, for pantomime was not in the curriculum of Tallinn University. Indeed, she relied on pantomimic action because in her mind history offered no models for accurately embodying female erotic desire. But that is the peculiar irony of pantomime history. Pantomime startles and grips the viewer because it seems to discard whatever history of performance the spectator brings to a performance; it is so strange because it is such a brazen break with the past. The “unregulated” performance of the body produces a momentous shift in the way spectators read the body and read performance, a shift away from the past and toward a new way of deciphering bodily significiation. It is always “new” when the body “tells” about the world without relying on speech or dance. From this perspective, the history of pantomime is the history of a mysterious and even intimidating possibility of bodily freedom, a history of a future realm of exploration.

Figure 194: Scenes from Iha, directed by Keithy Kuuspu, Tallinn, Estonia, April 24-25, 2019: a) the mirror scene with Agnes Ihoma, Dana Lorén Warres, Silvia-Kairet Põld, Amanda Hermiine Künnapas, Kristiina Heinmets, and Alma Nedzelskyte; b) the living room scene with Agnes Ihoma and Dana Lorén Warres; c) the restroom scene with Silvia-Kairet Põld and Amanda Hermiine Künnapas; d) the kitchen scene with Kristiina Heinmets and Alma Nedzelskyte; e) the nightclub scene with Amanda Hermiine Künnapas, Alma Nedzelskyte, Silvia-Kairet Põld, and Agnes Ihoma. On the left side of the image is visible the right arm of the shadowy figure of Keithy Kuuspu as she intrudes upon the scene. Photos: Fideelia-Signe Roots. 

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