List of Illustrations
Figure 1: Marble relief in the British Museum of a procession a maenad with a tambourine, a tibia player, and a god or Hercules figure with a panther companion, showing the tendency of Roman artists to foreground performing bodies against neutral, “empty,” or undefined backgrounds. Photo: British Museum.
Figure 2: Man wearing mask with woman lyre player against an “empty” background in painting from Herculaneum, ca. 60-79 CE. Photo by Mimmo Jodice, from Guillaud (1990).
Figure 3: Stucco frieze from the underground vault of Porta Maggiore in Rome depicting a pantomimic performance of Agave displaying the head of Pentheus, with musician accompanying the scene. Photo from Weege (1926).
Figures 4 and 5: Wall paintings from Pompeii deposited in Museo Archeological Nazionale, first century CE. Photo: Rito Bacchico.
Figure 6: Pompeiian wall painting of a dancer representing “Summer” with black background, from the Villa of Diomedes. Photo: Fausto and Felice Niccolini (1896).
Figure 7: Wall painting of a mysterious ritual, part of the fresco depicting the ritual at the Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii. Photo: Karl Toepfer.
Figure 8: Roman wall painting from Pompeii depicting dwarves performing the Judgment of Solomon. Photo: Museo Nazionale, Naples.
Figure 9: Frieze depicting the pyrrhic movement: marble relief in the Vatican dating from first century CE. Photo: Weege (1926).
Figure 10: Bronze statue of Faun performing pyrrhic step, from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, first century CE. Photo: Karl Toepfer.
Figure 11: Photos depicting the diversity of significations built around the pyrrhic step. Photos: Karl Toepfer.
Figure 12: Typology of archetypal characters in Terence’s play The Eunuchas depicted in the thirteenth century Terence manuscript, published in Jones and Morey (1931: folios 203, 205).
Figure 13: Plate XIII from Andrea De Jorio’s Gesture in Naples and Gesture in Classical Antiquity (1832).
Figure 14: Frieze of maenads with nude man from the end of the first century CE, excavated from the Casabianca district of Rome, now in the Museo Romano in Rome. From Paris (1981: 193-194).
Figure 15: Friezes depicting dancers performing with props or wearing unusual headdresses.
Figure 16: Tanagra dancer showing how her dress is part of her dance. Replica of ca. 350 BCE figurine comes from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Photos: Karl Toepfer.
Figure 17: Roman statuary showing the diversity of poses that pantomimes, inspired by the statuary, could introduce into their performances. Photos: from Reinach (1906).
Figure 18: Engraved figures crowded on the back of a bronze Etruscan mirror.
Figure 19: The Roman theater at Leptis Magna, Libya, second century CE, showing the wide shallow stage favored by the Romans. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 20: Part of the late first century Zliten mosaic, from a villa near Tripoli, showing musicians integrated with gladiatorial spectacle. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 21: Top: Template of a painting from Herculaneum in Monaco depicting an orchestra. Photo: from Guidobaldi (1992: 62). Bottom: Vatican mosaic depicts dancers and musicians beneath a wild beast competition. Photo: from Buranelli (2002).
Figure 22: Second century CE statue of Apollo carrying a cithara, Berlin Pergamon Museum. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 23: Fourth century CE mosaic from Piazza Armerina in Sicily showing tuba player beside official bestowing a victory palm on a chariot racer. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 24: Late fourth century or early fifth century mosaic of female musicians from villa in Mariamin, Syria. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 25: First century mosaic of street musicians from the villa of Cicero, Pompeii, in the Museo Nazionale, Naples.
Figure 26: A second century CE mosaic of a woman dancing with cymbals attached to her ankles along with a nude male or hermaphrodite dancer, from a villa in Madaba, Jordan. Photo: Madaba Museum.
Figure 27: Nudity of mythic identities in a wall painting from Pompeii, first century CE, showing Andromeda and Perseus, in the Museo Nazionale, Naples. Photo: Maiuri (1953).
Figure 28: Fourth century silver plate (Parabiago Plate) depicting a procession honoring Cybele attended by armed guards (Korybantes), the leading two performing the pyrrhic step. Photo: Museum of Archeology, Milan, Giovanni Dall’Orto.
Figure 29: Fragment of a wall painting from the Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii, showing an angel wearing boots. Photo: Karl Toepfer.
Figure 30: Engraving of an enigmatic performance on a silver plate described by Otto Jahn in 1867 displaying masks in uncertain relation to the performers, late fourth century.
Figure 31a: First century CE wall painting from the Pinarius Cerialis, Pompeii, depicting a pantomime performance of the contest between Apollo and Marsyas, with curtain suspended above the action, from Elia (1965).
Figure 31b: First century Pompeiian wall painting a woman holding a thyrsus accompanied by a tibia player before a large curtain, with a pair of performers or servants standing outside the curtain. The painting apparently depicts a ritual performance. Photo: Naples Archeological Museum.
Figure 32: Mask towers at the theater in Ostia, second or third century CE, displaying masks notworn by pantomimes. Photo: Karl Toepfer.
Figure 33: Masked characters performing a scene from a mime comedy, first century CE wall painting from Pompeii. Photo: Maiuri (1953).
Figure 34: Masks on display as depicted in miniatures illustrating the Terence manuscripts from the fourth or fifth centuries, from Jones and Morey (1931).
Figure 35: Roman wall painting from the first century CE, Pompeii (House of the Golden Bracelet), depicts sexually ambiguous masks. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 36: Fourth century ivory relief from Trier depicting a female pantomime.
Figure 37: Reconstruction of the Theater of Pompey, built in 55 BCE and operating throughout the Roman Empire. Photo: University of Caen.
Figure 38: Reconstruction of the scenae frons of the South Theater of Jerash, Jordan, ca. 100 CE, from Ian Browning (1982).
Figure 39: First century wall paintings from Pompeii (House of the Gladiators) showing theatrical performances occurring on stages with columns and niches (hospitalia) that would obscure the spectator’s view of the action if performed on an actual stage. Photos: from Bieber (1961: 232-233).
Figure 40: Top: Theoretical relations between the masts, the rigging, and the velum to produce a canopy for protecting spectators or performers from the sun in a Roman theater. From Graefe (1979: 156). Bottom: Reconstruction of theater at Aspendus, Turkey, with velum. From Izenour 1977.
Figure 41: Possible configurations of the canopy extended from the top of the scaenae frons over the stage of the theater in Aspendus, Turkey. From Graefe (1979: 158).
Figure 42: Reconstruction of the theater at Aspendus, Turkey, showing shadows cast by the velumrather than by the roof over the stage. From Lanckoronski (1890: Plate XXVII).
Figure 43: Experimental pantomime performance using oil-fueled torch lamps to simulate indoor (odeion) performance conditions at San Jose State University, November 2012. Photos (from video): Karl Toepfer.
Figure 44: Ground plan for the villa Casa del Labirinto, Pompeii, first century CE, from Wallace-Hadrill (1994: 115), after Strocka (1991).
Figure 45: Peristyle with colonnade in the first century CE Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 46: First century CE peristyle of the Casa di Vetti, Pompeii, with imagined rather than reconstructed garden. Photo: Sailko.
Figure 47: Peristyle for Emperor Diocletian’s palace at Split (Croatia), ca. 300. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 48: a) Reconstruction of a triclinium featuring a view to the peristylein the background. Photo: Unidentified Spanish web source; b) Mosaic of a possible pantomime performance from the triclinium of a villa in Zeugma, Turkey. Photo: Zeugma Mosaic Museum.
Figure 49: A large, imperial-sized triclinium as imagined in 1823 by Jules (Giulio) Ferrario.
Figure 50: a) Fifth century BCE caryatid dancer, Berlin, Pergamon Museum, Photo: Weege (1926: 41); b) Second century BCE figurine dancers, Taranto Museo Nazionale, Photo: Caratelli (1983: Plates 587, 599); c) First century CE relief of a dancer moving with a thyrsus, hand mirror, and shawl; Weege contends (96) the dancer is a hermaphrodite, Photo: Weege (1926: 108).
Figure 51: First century wall paintings from Pompeii (House of Cicero) depicting acrobats performing on ropes. Photo: Guillaud (1990: Plates 26, 28).
Figure 52: Female dancer on a second or third century CE gravestone from Contra Acquincum (near Budapest). Photo: Kob (1997: 171).
Figure 53: Third century mosaics of religious processions. Top: The Triumph of Bacchus, Sousse Museum, Tunisia. Bottom: Dionysian procession, from El Jem, Musee National du Bardo, Tunisia.
Figure 54: Great Dish of the Mildenhall Treasure showing Dionysian procession. Photo: British Museum.
Figure 55: Nineteenth century engraving of the Hippodrome, Rome, with pulvinar(kathisma) on the left.
Figure 56: The base of obelisk in the Hippodrome at Constantinople, ca. 390, showing the Emperor Theodosian in the kathisma surrounded by high officials, below him the faces of chariot sponsors or faction leaders, and below them dancers and musicians associated with the Hippodrome entertainments supervised by pantomimes. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 57: Fourth century mosaic from Rhodes of Bellerophon killing the chimera, possible stunt for pantomimes in the Hippodrome. Photo: Archeological Museum of Rhodes.
Figure 58: Diagram from Feuillet’s Choreographie ou l’art de’crire la dance (1701) showing the steps and movements of a sarabande for female dancer in relation to specific musical notation. Fueillet (1701).
Figure 59: Painting of the foireSt. Laurent, Paris (1767) by an unidentified artist. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 60: Painting by Bernardo Belloto (Canaletto) of a scene from the ballet pantomime Le Turc Généreux (1758), directed by Franz Hilverding in Vienna. Photo: British Museum.
Figure 61: Illustrations from Johann Jakob Engel’s Ideen zu einer Mimik, Erster Theil (1785), showing gestures that provoke emotional responses without signifying anything in particular.
Figure 62: Illustrations (Plate II, 1 and 2) purporting to show ancient tragic pantomime based on artifacts, from Francois de l’Aulnaye’s 1790 dissertation on ancient pantomime.
Figure 63: Monumental scenic designs by Alessandro Sanquirico for Salvatore Viganò’s production of Psammi (1817). Photos: New York Public Library, Victoria and Albert Museum.
Figure 64: Monumental scenic designs by Alessandro Sanquirico for Salvatore Viganò’s production of La Vestale (1818). Photo: Gallica (Bibliotheque nationale de France).
Figure 65: Drawings of “attitudes” performed by Emma Hamilton by Tommaso Piroli, based on the original drawings by Friedrich Rehberg (1794). Top: Niobe. Bottom: Cleopatra. Photos: Royal Museum Greenwich.
Figure 66: Drawing of Ida Brun by Christian Heinrich Kniep (1805-1810). Photo: Bakkehusmuseet, Copenhagen.
Figure 67: Drawings by Joseph Nicholas Perroux depicting “pantomimic positions” performed by Henriette Hendel-Schütz (1809). Photo: from Perroux (1809: Plates VII, XII, XVIII).
Figure 68: August Bouquet’s portrait of Jean-Gaspard Deburau (1830), the defining, archetypal image of Pierrot. Photo: Gallica, Bibliotheque nationale de France (public domain).
Figure 69: Antoine Watteau’s 1719 portrait of Gilles (Pierrot) in the Louvre, Paris. Photo: Public domain.
Figure 70: August Bouquet’s “Self-Portrait as Transvestite” (1831) with his famous Pierrot image behind him, deposited in the San Francisco Museum of Fine Arts.
Figure 71: Engraving of Robert Macaire (left) in a restaurant by Honoré Daumier, published as No. 19 in 1836 in the series Caricaturana. Photo: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.
Figure 72: “Pierrot photographe” (1854), photo by Nadar of Charles Deburau. From Hambourg (1995).
Figure 73: “Pierrot laughing” (1855) photo portrait of Paul Legrand by Nadar. Photo: from Hambourg (1995).
Figure 74: Left: Zinc silhouette of Colombine by Fernand Fau for a marionette pantomime produced at the cabaret Chat noir (1887). Photo: Musées de Châtellerault. Right: Félicia Mallet as Pierrot, a photographer, a photograph taken by Arthur da Cunha, published in the Bulletin de Photo-Club de Paris, March 1896.
Figure 75: Scenes from the pantomime Néron (1891), staged at the Hippodrome, Paris. Top: Photo by Albert Londe of Nero on his throne. Photo: Musée d’Orsay. Below: Scene with lions and mechanical apparatus for bringing the lions on to the arena stage. Photo: Mareschal (1891: 412-413).
Figure 76: Lulu as depicted by Henri Gerbault and Louis Morin for the published text of Félicien Champsaur’s pantomime Lulu (1888).
Figure 77: Lulu as imagined by different artists in Félicien Champsaur’s Lulu, roman clownesque (1900).
Figure 78: Illustrations from Mary Magill’s Pantomimes (1882) showing gestures for signifying Fear, Sorrow, and the Vow.
Figure 79: Adorée Villany, ca. 1910, “Dance of the Bees,” from Villany (1912).
Figure 80: Top: Ida Rubinstein in the film La Nave (1921). Photo: Alamy. Bottom: Georges Wague and Colette in Aux Bat. d’Af, Paris, 1911. Photo: Colette sur scene.
Figure 81: Lilli Green (left) and Margaret Walker as “black Pierrot,” in La Valse, with Chopin’s music, painting by Jacob Merkelbach (1920). Photo: Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Figure 82: Grit Hegesa in 1920, adopting a quasi-Pierrot look with modernist background and intoxicated pose. Photo: Ani Riess.
Figure 83: Illustration from Charles Aubert, L’Art mimique (1901) showing a gesture that may signify Timidity, Dissimulation, Hypocrisy, Physical suffering, Premeditation, Humility, Old age, Remorse, Self-distrust, Terror, Shame, or Apprehension. From Aubert (1901: 46).
Figure 84: Film technology during the silent era allowed for a fragmentation of pantomimic performance that emphasized physiognomic peculiarities and the expressive value of small physical actions. Soviet montage theory of the cinematic image connected this fragmentation to a critique of social and class constructions of identity, as in this scene from Kozinstev and Trauberg’s The Overcoat (1926).
Figure 85: Expressionist film pantomime in Teinosuke Kinugasa’s Jujiro (Crossroads) (1928), with Akiko Chihaya as Okiku (the sister) and Junosuke Bando as Rikiya (the brother).
Figure 86: Grete Wiesenthal and Lilly Berger in Hugo von Hofmannsthal’s Amor und Psyche, Berlin, 1911, costumes designed by Erwin Lang. Photo: Becker and Maass, from Wiesenthal (1911: 27).
Figure 87: Scene from Robert Wiene’s 1925 cinematic adaptation of the opera Der Rosenkavalier,by Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal. The Feldmarschall (Paul Hartmann) faces a delicate but persuasive challenge from his wife, the Marschallin (Huguette Duflos); Sophie (Elly Felicie Berger) and Octavian (Jaque Catelain) benefit from her intervention.
Figure 88: Illustration and design concept by Walter Gramatté for Sonia Fridman’s expressionist pantomime and musical composition Der träumende Knabe (1920). Photo: from Schulz-Hoffmann (1987).
Figure 89: Abstract figures, “Beloved,” and “Mother,” designed by Lothar Schreyer for his “Spielgang” or “play path” Kreuzigung (1920).
Figure 90: Alien, humanoid pantomime characters “Springvieh” and “Toboggan” created and performed by Lavinia Schulz and Walter Holdt, Hamburg, 1921. Photo: Minya Diez-Dührkoop, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg.
Figure 91: Movement notation by Lavinia Schulz for an unperformed dance/pantomime, Vier Sätze der Toten Frau (Four Sentences of the Dead Woman), Hamburg, 1922. Photo: Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg.
Figure 92: Scene from Jaap Kool’s pantomime Der Leierkasten, directed by Claire Eckstein, Würzburg, 1927. Photo: Deutsches Tanzarchiv, Cologne.
Figure 93: Scenes from Die Elixir des Teufels, directed by Ellen Petz and Georg Kiesau, Dresden, 1925. Photos: Ursula Richter, from Deutsche Fotothek.
Figure 94: Scenes from Robert Helpmann’s production of Hamlet, London, 1942, with Margo Fonteyn as Ophelia, bottom left, and Celia Franca as Gertrude, right. Photos by Russell Sedgwick, from Brahms (1943).
Film Still Series A: Scenes from Marcel Carné’s Les enfants du paradis (1944-1945). Images of ten scenes from the film.
Figure 95: “Marchand d’habits”scene from Jean-Louis Barrault’s production of Baptiste, Paris, 1946. Photo; Gallica, Bibliothèque nationale de France.
Figure 96: Etienne Decroux’s Les arbres (1947), as filmed in his New York studio in 1960. Photo: screen capture from projectomimicas YouTube channel, posted on December 19, 2012.
Figure 97: Scenes from Marcel Marceau’s production of Le manteaux (The Overcoat), Paris, 1951. Photo: Gallica, Bibliothèque nationale de France.
Figure 98: Images of BEWTH performances. Pieterskerk, Leiden (1976), Raadhuis, Hilversum (1996), Haags Gemeentemuseum, The Hague (1989), Pieterskirk, Leiden (1976), Ministerie van Social Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, The Hague (1994). Photos: Schade (2005: 89, 90, 151, 201).
Figure 99: An intriguing image of a pantomime performance by the Olga Szentpál dance group in Budapest, ca. 1935. However, information about pantomime in Hungary during that time remains very obscure. Photo: Erzsébet Leichtner, from Földvári Books.
Figure 100: Veronika Karsai performing her pantomime Tanc az is (It Is Also Dance) (2008). Photos: from video excerpts of the performance on the Karsai Veronika YouTube channel.
Figure 101: Jean and Brigitte Soubeyran performing Im Zirkus, early 1950s. Photo: Inge Worrigen.
Figure 102: Scene from Zwischen Tür und Angel, directed by Volkmar Otte, Pantomime Ensemble of the Deutsches Theater, Berlin, 1975. Photo: Abraham Pisarek, from Deutsche Fotothek.
Figure 103: 1) “Der Besiegte und Hinde Ailbe” (“The Vanquished and the Dog Ailbe”), with giant god hand as a character, 2) “Das geflügelte Pferd bringt den Unterlegenen ins Totenreich” (“The Flying Horse Brings the Defeated into the Realm of Death”), 3) “Krieg” (“War”). Photos: Buchwald (1992: 20, 21, 45).
Figure 104: Keltenvisionen, Scharniertheater, Hannover, 1989, directed by Jean Soubeyran. Top: “Vereinigung” (“Union”). Bottom: “Der Weise übergibt dem Suchendem den Torques” (“The Sage Hands the Seeker the Torques”). Photos: Buchwald (1992: 27, 35).
Figure 105: Top: Scene from Gilgamesh (1968), directed by Henryk Tomaszewski, Wroclaw, Poland. Bottom: Urszula Hasiej in Hamlet ironia i zaloba (1979), directed by Henryk Tomaszewski. Photo: Joanna Drankowska, from encyclopediateatru.pl.
Figure 106: Scenes from Krol Artur (King Arthur), directed by Henryk Tomaszewski, Wroclaw, Poland, 1981. Photos: Marek Grotowski, from encyclopediateatru.pl.
Figure 107: Photos by Zenta Dzividzinska from 1964-1965 depicting followers of Roberts Ligers rehearsing in the Riga Pantomime Studio. Photos: Laikmetīgās mākslas centra arhīvs.
Figure 108: Photos by Zenta Dzividzinska from 1964-1965 depicting followers of Roberts Ligers rehearsing in the Riga Pantomime Studio. Photos: Laikmetīgās mākslas centra arhīvs.
Figure 109: Scene from Jēzus Kristus kāzas (The Wedding of Jesus Christ), staged by Andris Grīnbergs, Latvia, 1972. Photo: Māra Brašmane, Laikmetīgās mākslas centra arhīvs.
Figure 110: Scenes from Overcoming (1975), directed by Giedrius Mackevičius, Moscow, 1975.
Figure 111: Top: Snake charmer scene from Imedeta imed (Miracle without Miracles), Tallinn Pantomime, directed by Adolf Traks, Tallinn, Estonia, 1967. Photo: Valdur Vahi, FOTIS, Rahvusarhiivi. Bottom: Scene from Hingetaud (Soul Sickness), Tallinn Pantomime, directed by Adolf Traks, Tallinn, Estonia, 1985. Photo: FOTIS, Rahvusarhiivi.
Figure 112: Top: Scene from the “Wreath Ballad” section of Mimeskid (Mimesques), directed by Kalle Kurg, Vanemuine Theater Tartu, Estonia, 1981, with Maret Kristal, Sirre Oengo, Mare Tommingas, Jelena Tšaulina. Photo: FOTIS, Rahvusarhiivi. Bottom: Maret Kristal in Sanctus, performed in the Kiek in de Kök, Tallinn, 1989, left: as pagan woman, right, as Christian woman with wimple. Photos: from “Torninäitus” video directed by Tiina Pork in ERR Arhiiv.
Figure 113: Left: Angna Enters as The Boy Cardinal (1924). Right: Angna Enters in Heptameron (1927). Photos: Enters (1937).
Figure 114: Ilka Schönbein in the birth scene of Metamorphosen (1993) and Le roi grenouille (1998), showing the fusion of human and puppet identities. Photos: Ilka Schönbein, Marinette Delanné (2017).
Figure 115: Anna Peschke in Ilsas Garten (2011). Photo: Kai Kremser.
Figure 116: Alejandro Jodorowsky in his black Pierrot costume (1951). Photo: Biblioteca Nacional de Chile.
Figure 117: Top: Scene from Cataplúm (1966), directed by Enrique Noisvander, Santiago Chile. Bottom: Scene from Noisvander’s production of Picardías de Fausto y Mefisto (1981), Santiago, Chile. Photos: Biblioteca Nacional de Chile.
Film Still Series B: Ingmar Bergman’s The Silence (1963): 28 images from the film.
Figure 118: Scenes from the Familie Flöz production of Infinita, Berlin, 2006. Photos: Andrea Zani.
Figure 119 and 120: Scenes from Lähtö (2013), directed by Kalle Nio, performed by him and Vera Selene Tegelman, Helsinki, Finland. Photos: Tom Hakala.
Figure 121: Scenes from Iha, directed by Keithy Kuuspu, as performed at Kanuti Gild, Tallinn, Estonia, April 24-25, 2019. Photos: Fideelia-Signe Roots.